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Olga Memedovic Chief, Europe and NIS Programme United Nations Industrial Development Organization. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN KAZAKHSTAN: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES The infrastructure to support the development and expansion of foreign economic activities of Kazakhstani SMEs 23 May 2013
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Olga MemedovicChief, Europe and NIS ProgrammeUnited Nations Industrial Development Organization ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN KAZAKHSTAN: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES The infrastructure to support the development and expansion of foreign economic activities of Kazakhstani SMEs 23 May 2013 Astana, Kazakhstan
Economic - World Bank Doing Business 2010/2013 rankings • Georgia and FYR Macedonia best performing countries in 2010 and 2013 • Many EECCA countries have improved their rankings between 2010 and 2013, but remain near the bottom of the table
Economy Rankings - Doing Business 2013 Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1 – 185. A high ranking on the ease of doing business index means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. This index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics, made up of a variety of indicators, giving equal weight to each topic. The rankings for all economies are benchmarked to June 2012. Source: IFC/World Bank
Global Competitiveness Index 2012-2013The World Economic ForumGlobal Competitiveness Report, 2012–2013, ranked Kazakhstan 51 among the 144 countries surveyed, up from 72nd place in 2011 higher than Russia, Georgia or any other non-EU former Soviet republic, except Azerbaijan Russian Fed Ukraine Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan
Structural transformation- Increasing urbanization Growing urban populations
Kazakhstan Europe and Central Asia World Kazakhstan 2003 2011 World Kazakhstan Europe and Central Asia 2003 Trade indicators Source: World Bank Industry, value added (% of GDP) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 45 60 Kazakhstan World 30 25 Europe and Central Asia 2011 2003 Manufacturing value added, % GDP GDP Growth (annual GDP) 10 18 World Europe and Central Asia 0 -5 10 2011 2003 2011
Europe and NIS Region Global Innovation Index rankings (INSEAD)
Global Innovation Index rankings (INSEAD) (continued)
Economic - Intra-industry trade (IIT) scores (0-10) – two way trade of products within the same sector Growth in IIT is associated with and expansion in trade through greater specialization and economies of scale rather than comparative advantage. Further, IIT is associated with foreign direct investment, innovation and the accumulation of knowledge. Source: UNIDO, based on UN Comtrade
Share in world manufactured intermediate goods exports and importsThe share in world manufactured intermediate goods exports and imports remains very low. Imports Exports 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 % 50 % 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 1988 1994 2000 2010 2010 1988 1994 2000 Industrialized countries Developing countries CIS
Stages of catching-up Industrialization Creativity Technology absorption STAGE FOUR Full capability in innovation and design as global leader Agglomeration (acceleration of FDI) Arrival of manufacturing FDI STAGE THREE Management & technology mastered, can produce high quality goods STAGE TWO Have supporting industries but still under foreign guidance Japan, US, EU STAGE ONE Simple manufacturing under foreign guidance STAGE ZERO Monoculture, agriculture, aid dependency Korea, China Middle Income Trap Internalizing parts and components Internationalizing skills and technology Initial FDI absorption Pre - industrialisation Internationalizing innovation
Role of multilateralism & regionalism/ bilateralism International public goods Globalization of industry: GVC Global Domain Local industries SMEs and clusters National Domain National public goods Business Environment Role of public and private sector Industrial strategies, policies and programmes Regulatory: IPR, contract protection, and enforcement SMEs-Clusters and GVC linkages !The share of total population employed in SME: 32 % in 2011 > developed countries average: 50-70%.
Regional Innovation System Knowledge application & exploitation and transformation subsystem SMEs/Clusters Customers Competitors Contractors Collaborators ICT Governance system : university; government and business Flows of resources: knowledge, finance & skills Building trust and confidence in institutions and their reliability Venture capitalist, Lawyers for patents and IPR Governance system : university; government and business Technology and productivity centers, cleaner production centers, Investment promotion centers Quality infrastructure: metrology, standards, testing, and quality control centres; Export consortia; Commercial banks; Business incubators; Technology parks, Consulting firms; Educational centres Knowledge generation & diffusion subsystem Memedovic after Cooke 2006, UNIDO
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