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Academic Support and Academic Identity of African American Males Labeled Emotionally Handicapped (EH) By Cheryl T. Jeffr PowerPoint Presentation
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Academic Support and Academic Identity of African American Males Labeled Emotionally Handicapped (EH) By Cheryl T. Jeffries. Phenomenon. Increasing rates (Donovan & Cross, 2002; Fearn, 2002) Higher rates than other ethnic groups or gender (Harry & Anderson, 1999; Kunjufu, 1995)

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Academic Support and Academic Identity of African American Males Labeled Emotionally Handicapped (EH)By Cheryl T. Jeffries
phenomenon
Phenomenon
  • Increasing rates (Donovan & Cross, 2002; Fearn, 2002)
  • Higher rates than other ethnic groups or gender (Harry & Anderson, 1999; Kunjufu, 1995)
  • Highest drop-out rates than any other disability group (Corbett & Clark, 2002; Etscheidt, 2002)
  • 10% rate of declassification (Harry & Anderson, 1999)
research questions
Research Questions
  • How do African American male children labeled EH see themselves in the academic community?
  • What kinds of academic support are offered to African American male children labeled EH in the school and in the community?
theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework
  • Irvine Paradigm (1990): curriculum, tracking, disciplinary practices
  • Cultural difference theory (Erickson, 1976, Cummins, 1993)
  • Social mobility theory (Ogbu, 1983):

caste-like minority & immigrant minority

  • Cultural capital theory (Bourdieu, 1970)
  • African American achievement theory (Perry, 2003)
methodology
Methodology
  • Selection of schools, teachers, and students
  • Non-participant observation
  • Formal interviews
  • Questionnaires
  • Content Analysis
hargrove elementary schools
Hargrove Elementary Schools
  • Established in 1998
  • “C” school in 2004 (“B” school in 2005)
  • 81% B, 1% W, 14% H
  • Title I (50% reduced/free lunch)
demerson elementary school
Demerson Elementary School
  • Established in 1957
  • “A” school in 2004 (“A” school in 2005)
  • 59% B, 10% W, 26% H
  • Title I (50% reduced/free lunch)
hargrove classroom
Hargrove Classroom
  • 3rd, 4th, & 5th graders
  • 5 students: 4 Black males, 1 Hispanic female
  • Small space
  • 6 Dell computers
  • Accelerated Reader (AR), Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) Explorer, River Deep, and Lexia
  • Value posters
demerson classroom
Demerson Classroom
  • 4th & 5th graders
  • 8 students: 3 females (1 Black), 5 males

(4 Black)

  • Medium space
  • 3 Compaq computers
  • AR, FCAT Explorer, Read 180, and Fast Forward
  • Value posters
hargrove ms johnson
Hargrove: Ms. Johnson
  • Female
  • Hispanic
  • Language: English/Spanish
  • B.A. in Special Education (EH)
  • 3 1/2 years experience
  • Self-rating: 8
  • Goal: Individual Education Plan (IEP), FCAT
  • Vision: Attain education & job, responsible paying bills, and successful citizenship
demerson ms terry
Demerson: Ms. Terry
  • Female
  • African American
  • Language: English
  • B.A. in Special Education (EH)
  • 4 years
  • Self-rating: 5
  • Goal: Confidence, academics, and emotions
  • Vision: Effective communication, productive citizenship, and societal conformity
hargrove jerry
Hargrove: Jerry
  • 10 years old
  • 4th grade
  • Language: Creole/English
  • Lower-class neighborhood
  • Household: Mother & Father
  • Youngest (3 sisters & 1 brother)
  • Career: Baseball player & grass cutter
  • Activities: Basketball, football, soccer, pool, cutting grass, ride bikes, movies, and deejay
hargrove lamar
Hargrove: Lamar
  • 10 years old
  • 4th grade
  • Language: English
  • Lower-class neighborhood
  • Household: Father
  • Second youngest (1 brother & 3 sisters)
  • Career: Policeman, mechanic, and wrestler
  • Activities: football, basketball, and wrestling
demerson bernard
Demerson: Bernard
  • 10 years old
  • 4th grade
  • Language : Creole/English
  • Middle-class neighborhood
  • Household: Mother
  • Second youngest (3 brothers)
  • Career: Football, basketball, and police officer
  • Activities: Play with cat, bike-ride, create games, and arts & crafts
student interview data
Student Interview Data

Academic Identity

Academic Support

Career goals:

1. Career interests

2. Role models

3. Confidence of H.S.

graduation

4. Activities

Activity involvement:

1. School programs

2. Class activities

3. Outside-school

activities

Academic community feelings:

1. School

2. Class

3. Perception of teacher view

Career Advice:

1. Necessity of school

2. Provider of advice

3. Receptivity of advice

student interview data continued
Student Interview Data continued

Academic Identity

Academic Support

Perception of teacher:

1. Views on teacher caring

2. Views on teacher

perception

School Programs:

1. Awareness of programs

2. Recommended programs

3. Participation

Teacher support:

1. Academic self-view

2. School/class feelings

3. H.S. graduation

4. Views on teacher caring

5. Views on teacher

perception

teacher interview data
Teacher Interview Data

Self-Perception

as Teacher

Perception of

Black Males

Reason for teaching:

1. Decision-making

2. Future length-stay

Goals:

1. Goals for students

2. Year accomplishments

3. Academic achievement

4. Teaching changes

Experience:

1. Likes/dislikes

2. Work experience

3. Educational attainment

Black males & Success:

1. Outlook on their future,

care for school, & activities

2. Teacher preferred activities for

them

Black males & behavior:

1. Causes in class

2. Common behaviors in class,

school, and other schools

teacher interview data continued
Teacher Interview Data continued

Academic Support

Provided Support:

1. Strategies

2. Importance of school

3. Knowledge of lives

4. Frequency of recommended activities

Disciplinary Practices:

1. Methods

2. Time spent on discipline

Parent Interaction:

1. Calls

2. Visits

3. letters

findings teachers
Findings: Teachers
  • Teachers used effective instructional practices
  • Teachers’ viewed students capable of academic achievement
  • Lack administrative support
findings students
Findings: Students
  • Self-view as good student (2 of 3)
  • Non-academic and academic activities
  • Positive future outlook
  • Support: Academics, careers, and activities
  • Teachers’ support impacted scholarly ethos, school & class feelings, and views of teachers’ perceptions of them
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Teachers’ academic support strongest impact on students’ self-perception as academic scholar
  • Friends most influential of students’ activity involvement
implications
Implications
  • Longitudinal study
  • Tape record interviews
  • More schools
  • Interview teachers and students in general inclusion settings
  • Interview students of varied gender and race
  • Public & non-public schools