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Objectives. To learn more about some of the results of chemical reactions To learn to predict the solid that forms in a precipitation reaction To learn to write molecular, complete ionic, and net ionic equations . A. Common Results of a Reaction .

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slide1

Objectives

  • To learn more about some of the results of chemical reactions
  • To learn to predict the solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
  • To learn to write molecular, complete ionic, and net ionic equations
a common results of a reaction
A. Common Results of a Reaction
  • Four common eventsaccompanychemical reactions. These often occur when a reaction happens
    • Formation of a solid
    • Formation of water
    • Formation of a gas
    • Transfer of electrons

Can you give examples of each of these?

b precipitation reactions
B. Precipitation Reactions
  • What Happens When an Ionic Compound Dissolves in Water?

H2O

NaCl(aq)

NaCl(s)

But what does NaCl(aq) mean?

Na+ and Cl- ions in water ?

NaCl molecules in water ?

Na and Cl atoms in water?

b precipitation reactions4
B. Precipitation Reactions
  • What Happens When an Ionic Compound Dissolves in
  • Water?
  • The ions separate and move around independently – a strong electrolyte
b a reaction in which a solid forms
B. A Reaction in Which a Solid Forms
  • A reaction in which a solid is formed from a solution is called a precipitation reaction
    • Solid = precipitate = insoluble

When positive and negative ions form a precipitate the net charge of the precipitate is zero

Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq)

PbI2 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)

stalactites in yosemite
Stalactites in Yosemite

Ca(HCO3)2(aq)

→ CaCO3(s) +

H2O(l) + CO2(aq)

b precipitation reactions8
B. Precipitation Reactions
  • What Happens When Two Ionic Compounds Dissolve in
  • Water?
  • K2CrO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) Products
b precipitation reactions9
B. Precipitation Reactions
  • How to Decide What Products Form
  • Determine the possible products from the ions in the reactants.
  • In our example
  • K2CrO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) Products
  • The possible ion combinations are
slide10
What are the potential products in the reactions between the following aqueous solutions? – Write balanced equations for each
  • NaOH + CaCl2
  • CuBr2 + (NH4)2CO3
  • K2SO4 + Fe(NO3)3
b precipitation reactions11
B. Precipitation Reactions
  • How Would We Decide What Product Has Formed?
  • What is most likely to be the yellow solid formed in the following reaction?
  • K2CrO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq)
  • The possible product combinations are KNO3 and BaCrO4
    • KNO3 white solid
    • BaCrO4 yellow solid
b precipitation reactions13
B. Precipitation Reactions
  • Using Solubility Rules
  • Predicting Precipitates
  • Soluble solid
  • Insoluble solid
  • (Slightly soluble solid)

Why are some compounds soluble and others not?

solubility rules are these compounds soluble or insoluble
Solubility Rules – Are These Compounds Soluble or Insoluble?

Barium Nitrate

Potassium Carbonate

Sodium Sulfate

Copper (II) Hydroxide

Mercury (I) Chloride

Ammonium Phosphate

Chromium (III) Sulfide

Lead (II) Sulfate

b precipitation reactions15
B. Precipitation Reactions

Let’s try some predictions: WOC P271 Q10

c describing precipitation reactions in aqueous solutions
C. Describing Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
  • Three types of equations:
    • Molecular (formula) equation 

complete formulas of all reactants and products

    • Complete ionic equation 

all strong electrolytes are shown as ions

    • Net ionic equation 

only those components of the solution that undergo a change

      • Spectator ion (those that remain unchanged) 

not shown in the net ionic equation

c describing precipitation reactions in aqueous solutions17
C. Describing Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
  • Molecular Equation

Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq)

PbI2 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)

  • Complete Ionic Equation

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + 2I-(aq)

PbI2(s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq)

c describing precipitation reactions in aqueous solutions18
C. Describing Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) PbI2(s)

  • Net Ionic Equation
  • What are the spectator ions in this reaction?

A solution of sodium chloride in water reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to give a precipitate of silver chloride – write down the three equations that describe this reaction and identify the spectator ions

(P272 Q14 – all three equations and identify spectators)