State of the Art in Arc Modeling ELECTRODE BEHAVIOR

Morrow & Lowke.1993. 1D theory for

Delalondre & Simonin.1990. 1D.

Chen, David, Zacharia, 1997

CATHODE AND ANODE FALLS

the electric sheats of electric arcs. (anode

modeling high intensity arcs inclu-

model interaction between the

and cathode falls).

ding non equilibrium description of

and the weld pool in GTA. Free

the cathode sheath.

surface changing with time

2AA

Zhu & Lowke.1992. Treats cathode

Kim, Fan, Na. 1997. 2D

boundary layer and arc column as

Auttukhov, 1983

Chen & Zacharia, 1991.

GTA, cathode influence

unified system.

Current thermionic emission

Analysis of the electrode tip

and free surface. No

angle and geometry of the

assumption on Jc.

Tekriwal, Mazunder.1988.2D analytical

2AC

GTA weld pool.

Mckelliget & Szekely.1986

Cram, 1983. Focussing

model for heat source (pointed tip).

Choo, 1990. Couple between

cathode and anode

on the energy balance of

Convection at anode by means of heat

arc and weld pool. Deformation

development

the electrode

transfer coefficient, properties constant

Sui & Kou, 1990. 2D,

of the pool.

Effect of the tip geometry

2AB

Hsu & Pfender,1983. Detailed

shielding gas, nozzle,

model for the cathode region

Westhoff, 1989. 2D arc model

2A

specifying current density at anode.

2C

deformation of weld pool. Small

changes in Jc changes T fields.

Dawson, Bendzak, Mueller, 1997

Pradip, Yogadra, Rama, 1995

Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in a

3D, heat transfer, fluid flow in GTAW

twin cathode DC furnace. Exp.

with non-axisymetric b.c.’s. Maxwell

2B

messurments in lab. modeling furnace

equations, uses buoyancy, surface tension

and electromagnetic forces.

ARC COLUMN MODELING

Qian, Farouk, Mathasaran, 1995

McKelliget & Szekely, 1986. 2D, DC approximate

BASED ON PHYSICAL PRINC.

Fluid flow and heat transfer in

boundary conditions. Jc=65MA/m

2

B.C.’S APPROXIMATED OR

EAF, 2D, DC

EAF

WELDING

EXP. DETERMINED.

Goldak & Moore. 1986. Finite ele-

ment method. Describes the source.

McKelliget & Szekely, 1983

Kovitya & Cram, 1986. 2D, LTE

2D arc model, coupling pool

MHD, boundary conditions assumed.

Lowke 1980. 2D continuity

and arc models.

Kovitya & Lowke, 1985. 2D, uses

energy, naturla convection.

properties theoretically calculated.

Hsu, Etemadi, Pfender, 1983. 2D

Jc=100MA/m

. Extends Lowke’s

2

2

MHD eqs. with b.c’s experimentally

McKelliget & Swzekely, 1981.

RF DISCHARGES

,odel to incorporate Lorentz’s for-

determined. Anode and cathode

Heat transfer & Fluid flow in

ces and electron drift enthalpy.

excluded. Jc assumed with a gaussian

a EAF

shape.

Allum, 1981. 2D Assumes current

Ramakrishan & Nou. 1980.

and velocity in gaussian profiles.

Dinulesca & Pfender, 1980

lowke, 1979. 2d momentum and en

3

1

2D, semianalytical model.

Includes magnetic, viscous and

Analysis of the boundary

ergy eqs. Natural convection.

Radial vel. field assumed.

gravitational forces.

layer in high intensity arcs

Low currents.

Lowke, 1979. 1D, analytical

Chang, Eagar, Szekely. 1979. Velo-

model for arc voltage, electric

city fields calculated analytically

Ushio, Szekely, Chang, 1980

field and plasma velocity.

using Lorentz’s forces.

2D model, assuming parabolic

Glickstein, 1979. 1D, analytical. Radial

current density distribution,

variations of temperature and J. No plas-

k-e

turbulent model.

ma flow.

Squire 51: isothermal, point force

Maecker 55: e.m. force approx

Shercliff 69: point current

Yas’ko 69: dimensional analysis

1=RF Discharges

(nat. convection).

2=Welding (Laminar flow).

3=EAF (turbulent flow).

2A=B.C.(anode and cathode

modeling)

2B=Coupled arc and weld

pool (welding)

2C=Geometry effects in

welding.

2AA=ANODE REGION

2AB= ANODE AND

CATHODE

2AC=CATHODE REGION