Edward Chance Tolman. Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism. Born in Newton, Mass. April 14, 1886 Died Nov. 19, 1959. 1911: Earned BS from Mass. Institute of Tech. in electrochemistry 1912: Introduced to Gestalt psychology 1915: Earned Doctorate from Harvard-retroactive inhibition.
Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism
1918: Began teaching at Univ. of Calif. Berkeley.
1923: Returned to Giessen in Germany to study Gestalt psychology.
1930: Studied the role of reward in experiments of maze running with rats.
1932: Wrote Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men.
1937: Presented Presidential address to APA. Pres. Of APA.
1940: Chairman of Lewin’s Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
1942: Published Drives Toward WarTolman’s Career
1948: Wrote “Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men”
1949: Wrote “There is More than One Kind of Learning”.
1957: Received APA award for distinguished scientific contributions.
1958: Wrote Behavior and Psycholgidcal Man; Essays in Motivation and Learning
1959: Received honorary LL.D.-Univ. of Calif.Tolman’s Career con’t.
Has several routes in which to choose from.
Allowed to run freely until it has learned maze.
Barriers are placed in some paths.
Paths vary in length.
Conclusions is that learning involves
development of cognitive maps.
Cognitive maps look at relationships between goals and behaviors as well as knowledge of the environment.
Rats develop series of expectations with respect to behavior-sign significant relationships.The Blocked-Path Study
Example: A banana is placed under a cup in full view of a monkey. When the monkey is not looking, the banana is replaced with lettuce. The monkey turns the cup over expecting to find a banana. When it does not, it becomes agitated.
*Mental representation of a physical environment where goals are reached.
*Internal representation of relationships between behavior and goals.
½ found their way to the goal box without reinforcement.
They develop cognitive maps without rewards.
There is delayed learning which is called latent.
Latent learning shows distinction between performance and learning.A Latent Learning Experiment
Edward Chace Tolman-another neobehaviorist-deliberately gave behaviorism a different twist; he gave it a purpose (Lefrancois, 2000).