So far we have studied: Portraiture Patrician carrying busts Philip the Arabian Commodus Now this is: Relief Sculpture. Arch of Titus. AD 81. But first...a list of Emperors. Trajanic Dynasty Nerva AD96-98 Trajan AD98-117 Hadrian AD117-138 Antonine Dynasty Antoninus Pius AD138-161
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So far we have studied: • Portraiture Patrician carrying busts Philip the Arabian Commodus • Now this is: • Relief Sculpture Arch of Titus AD 81
But first...a list of Emperors Trajanic Dynasty • Nerva AD96-98 • Trajan AD98-117 • Hadrian AD117-138 Antonine Dynasty • Antoninus Pius AD138-161 • Marcus Aurelius AD161- 180 • Lucis Verus AD161-169 • Commodus AD177-192 Severan dynasty • (11 emperors) Emperors during the height of crisis AD 235-268 • Philip the Arabian • Many others (constant change) • Constantine AD 337-307 Julio-Claudian dynasty • Augustus 27BC- AD14 • Tiberius AD14 - 37 • Caligula AD37 – 41 • Claudius AD 41- 54 • Nero AD54- 68 Year of 4 emperors (AD 68 –AD69) • Galba • Otho • Vitellius Flavian Dynasty • Vespasian AD69-79 • Titus AD79-81 • Domitian AD 81-96
Reliefs from the Arch of Titus workbook p.44 Location: On the Via Sacra (Sacred Way) in Rome Architectural type: Arch Inscription: Find notes on p.44/45 Paul Artus Purpose: Constructed to commemorate Titus’ defeat of the Jews and destruction of Jerusalem and its temple in AD 70, as well as his deification Dates of construction: Find in Paul Artus Construction materials: Pentallic marble Dimensions: 15mhigh & 12m wide
Arch of Titus workbook p.47 • Who built this arch? Domitian (Titus’ brother and successor) • What were the dates of Titus’ reign? Look up on the list of Emperors that you have glued in the back of your workbook
Reliefs from the Arch of Titus workbook p.46 • Glue in the two panels (given to you on the handout) • Annotate them using the notes from Paul Artus p.47/48 45/46
Arch of Titus workbook p.47 North panel The content of this panel is Titus’ triumphant procession upon his return to Rome after defeating the Jews at Jerusalem. He sits at the back of a quadriga (4 horse chariot) as the triumphant general.
Arch of Titus workbook p.47 North panel Comment on the style and features of this panel: There is a sense of movement shown as the depth of the relief varies – it is very deeply carved in the centre and low relief on either side, as if the procession is swinging around a corner. Titus is made to be the dominant image by being placed high above the other objects. Here humans and gods (divinities) walk side by side.
Arch of Titus workbook p.47 South Panel The content of this panel also the procession of Titus’ success at Jerusalem. Here his soldier’s carry spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem to show of their success as they return to Rome through the triumphal gate.
Arch of Titus workbook p.47 South panel Comment on the style and features of this panel: There is a sense of movement conveyed by soldiers overlapping to show the busy procession. Their knees are bent to show the weight of the spoils which emphasises the victory. Heads bobbing up and down irregularly giving liveliness and depth. This is also high relief in the centre and low on the sides to convey the idea of the procession coming towards the viewer then away. The dominant image is the menorah above the heads of the soldiers.
Arch of Titus Workbook p.47 List two ways that this Arch reflects Imperial Propaganda 1. 2. See page 46/48 paul Artus
Arch of Titus workbook p.48 1. 2. 3. 4. Composite/inscription/coffers/vault/ gilded/ chariot (quadriga) 5. 6.Titus/higher/Victory/Genius of Roman people/semi-nude 7. 8. 9. background/ blue/ gold/ overlapping /spoils
columns • See page 79 • Of your workbook
A B Guess the column capital! D C
Types of columns Unfluted Fluted
What type of columns are these, Fluted or unfluted? Are they free-standing or joined to the wall? What is a word we use for people who are joined together? (particularly before being joined in marriage?)
What type of columns are these, Fluted or unfluted? Are they free-standing or joined to the wall (engaged)?
What types of columns does the arch of Titus have? Fluted/unfluted? engaged/freestanding?
What types of columns Capitals does the arch of Titus have?
Use Paul Artus p.46/44 to annotate the diagram with the detail of the arch Workbook p. 49 West inscription attic keystone entablature South North Engaged composite columns vault Exterior columns Are unfluted Interior columns are fluted Pylon /pier Pylon /pier Relief of Apotheosis (Titus on an eagle) East
This scene is placed on the centre of the Coffered vault, over the main passage. Depicts Titus being carried heavenward on The back of a large eagle. This Represents his apotheosis (becoming A god). This also confirms that the Arch was made after his death. Apotheosis of Titus Glue on to p.44 of your workbook and write the notes
Add to page 49 Add to page 49 of your workbook The architrave is supported by a Projecting key stone, which has been Carved into a scroll. The scroll is decorated on One side of the monument with the figure Of Roma & on the other with the figure of Fortuna. “It is elegant in its simplicity. A single gateway stands crowned by An entablature and attic storey.”
The triumph is recorded on a pair of relief panels that decorate the interior walls of the arch. • Each is a continuous narrative which represents a section of the events from the triumphal parade of AD71
Vocab list – put on p.47 in top right corner Vocab: • Pylons – 2 outside pillars of an arch • Vault – circular central part of an arch • Posthumous – after death • Fasces – bundles of birch rods surrounding an axe • Lictors – attendants of the emperor • Genius - spirit/soul of a group of people • Keystone (highlight in your glossary) • Spandrels (highlight in your glossary) • Apotheosis – becoming a god
The South panel Glue into p.46 And annotate using Paul Artus
The South panel Glue into p.46 And annotate using Paul Artus North panel
The north panel – add to p.46 • Emperor Titus depicted at rear of parade as Triumphator (Triumphant general). • He is led through the city by personifications of the virtues most admired by Romans.\
The south panel. …Add to p.46 • The soldiers wear only tunics and laurel wreaths because it was tradition that before entering Rome, they had to leave their weapons outside the city walls. • The most prominent feature of this relief is the men holding the menorah, so much attention to detail, that they use pillows on their shoulders to help ease the burden
*Interesting facts – add to page 45 of your workbook • Its current appearance is the result of much restoration during the 19th century. • The arch had once been incorporated into a medieval fortress as part of its defences and a chamber was built into the vault of the arch – the large holes that held its support beams are still in the reliefs of the central passage • Inscription was once in bronze, the latin phrase “Senatus Populusque Romanus” or ‘SPQR’ translates to ‘the senate and people of Rome’, is a common feature of Roman monuments. • Top of the arch once had a bronze statue of a quadriga on it
Homework! Complete the previous Exam questions in Paul Artus