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GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES (CE1203). Basic Geological Mapping. Ms Ikmalzatul. What are geological maps?.

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geotechnical properties ce1203

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES(CE1203)

Basic Geological Mapping

Ms Ikmalzatul

what are geological maps
What are geological maps?

A geological map shows the distribution of various types of bedrock in an area. It usually consists of a topographic map (a map giving information about the form of the earth’s surface) which is coloured to show where different rock units occur at or just below the ground surface.

What is a geological map used for?

The most obvious use of a geological map is to indicate the

nature of the near-surface bedrock. This is clearly of great

importance to civil engineers who, for example, have to

advise on the excavation of road cuttings or on the sitting of

bridges; to geographers studying the use of land and to

companies exploiting minerals.

strike and dip
STRIKE AND DIP

Strike is the orientation of the line of intersection between the horizontal plane and the rock bed. These are expressed as a

compass bearing (eg. NW)

strike and dip1
STRIKE AND DIP

Dip is the angle that the bed makes with horizontal, measured in the vertical plane, in the direction perpendicular to the strike

strike lines
STRIKE LINES
  • A strike line is a horizontal line drawn on a planar surface. This can be a bedding plane, fault, etc.
  • Strike lines are sometimes called “structural contours” because just like conventional contour lines they join points of equal elevation on a surface.
  • In order to draw one you must first find at least two points of equal elevation on the same plane.
  • You can choose any planar geological feature but for your exercises the plane is the boundary between two different rock types.
strike lines1
STRIKE LINES

Step 1 – Choose a plane

In this case the boundary between rock type G and H have been chosen

strike lines2
STRIKE LINES

Step 2 – Find at least two points on the plane with the same elevation.

Use topographic contours to find elevation

strike lines3
STRIKE LINES

GH400

Step 3 – Connect the points of equal elevation to draw a strike line (structural contour) on the G-H boundary plane

Make sure to label the strike line correctly

strike lines4
STRIKE LINES

GH300

GH400

Step 4 – Now draw another strike line at a different elevation on the same plane (G-H boundary) using the same technique

strike lines5
STRIKE LINES

GH300

GH400

The strike of the bedding is the compass bearing of the strike line.

In this case, the strike is about ENE

slide12
DIP
  • Dip is the line of steepest slope on a plane and it is always at right angles to the strike.
  • Beds dip from the higher elevation strike line to the lower one
calculating dip angle
CALCULATING DIP ANGLE

GH300

GH400

In the field, the dip is measured using a geological compass but on a map it can be calculated using:

500m

rise/run