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The Framework of the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme. Presentation to the. Advocacy and Sensitization Meeting with State and LGA Policy Makers At Jigawa State Hotels, Dutse 7 th September, 2005. Dr. D. Bashir National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna.

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the framework of the national rural water supply and sanitation programme
The Framework of the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme

Presentation to the

Advocacy and Sensitization Meeting

with State and LGA Policy Makers

At Jigawa State Hotels, Dutse

7th September, 2005

Dr. D. Bashir

National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna

outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation
  • Indicators (Social, Political & Economic)
  • Water and Sanitation
  • Need for the RWSS Programme
  • Programme Context, Goals and Objectives
  • Critical Assumptions
  • Programme Conceptual Framework
  • Programme Strategies
  • Critical roles of the LGA WSS Department

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

socio political indicators
Socio-political Indicators
  • Area = 923,768 km2
  • 36 States and FCT
  • 774 LGAs
  • Population = 130m (based on 1991 census (88.5m) and 2.8% growth rate)
  • 32.5m live in communities of < 1,500
  • 32.5m live in communities of 1,500 – 5,000
  • 65m live in towns > 5,000 and cities

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

socio economic indicators
Socio-economic Indicators
  • GDP growth rate < 2.7%
  • GNP per capita: $599(1975) to $270(2003)
  • Situation reflects aggravating poverty:
    • More severe in rural than urban areas
    • About 70% population live on < $1 per day
    • About 90% population live on < $2 per day
  • IMR and U5MR per 1000 LB are 71 and 133
  • Malaria, Diarrhoea, ARI and typhoid account for about 70% Infant/U5 mortality

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

water resources
Water Resources
  • Annual Rainfall varies from <300 mm in the north to > 3,000 in the south
  • Surface runoff = 267 billion m3/yr
  • Groundwater resources = 52 billion m3/yr
  • Quality of groundwater generally acceptable but quality of most surface sources is suspect
  • Acceptable drinking water quality standards yet to be established for country

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

water and sanitation
Water and Sanitation
  • Inadequate access in quantity and quality
  • Prevalence of:
    • Diarrhoea (150,000 - 200,000 child deaths/yr)
    • Guinea worm (case reduction of >99% 87-02) Disease still prevalent in 18 States
  • Prevalence of water and sanitation diseases due to combination of :
    • inadequate health care
    • inadequate water and sanitation services
    • unhygienic practices

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

access to safe water and sanitation

Sanitation

Level

Water Supply

44%

Rural

48%

75%

Urban

71%

54%

53%

National

54%

54%

Sub-Saharan Africa

Access to Safe Water and Sanitation

*1999 FOS-UNICEF MICS

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

water and sanitation1
Water and Sanitation
  • Wide disparity between water and sanitation in community priorities
  • At programme level similar trend in priority
    • Clamour for ownership but not responsibility for sanitation
    • Inadequate capacity to manage sanitation development
    • Sanitation lags behind water in policy development

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

need for rwss programme framework
Need for RWSS Programme Framework
  • Slow pace of achieving coverage due to:
    • Nature of most programmes: interventionist, short-lived, pilot or demonstrative
    • delay in issuance of sector policy
    • Lack of comprehensive and coherent national RWSS programme
    • Frequent changes in government leading to discontinuities in programme environment

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

need for rwss programme framework1
Need for RWSS Programme Framework
  • RWSS Programme strategic framework would:
    • lend focus to the sub-sector
    • ensure programme coherence
    • ensure co-ordination at all levels
    • provide basis for inputs by dev. Partners
    • enable communities take active role
    • provide enabling environment for ESAs to provide strategic support

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

programme vision
Programme Vision

Provision of sufficient potable water and adequate sanitation to all Nigerians in an affordable and sustainable way through participatory investment by the three tiers of government, the private sector and the beneficiaries

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

programme context
Programme Context
  • Programme in consonance with:
    • Millennium Development Goals for water
    • WSSD Goals for Sanitation
    • National WSS Policy Objectives
    • Presidential Water Initiative targets
    • Focus on RWSS
    • Poverty reduction strategies of NEEDS

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

programme goals
Programme Goals
  • Consolidate, increase and sustain universal access to adequate quantities of affordable and safe water by year 2015
  • Consolidate, increase and sustain universal access to hygienic sanitation facilities by year 2020

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

programme objectives
Programme Objectives
  • Promote improved hygiene and sanitation practice through participatory and social marketing approach
  • Support, strengthen and enhance community management to ensure sustainability
  • Increase capacity of government at all levels to assist communities obtain and manage basic WSS services
  • Enhance capacity of private sector to supply goods and services
  • Support poverty reduction programme by reducing diseases and enhancing productivity of the poor

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

programme objectives1
Programme Objectives
  • Support NIGEP through provision of safe drinking water to endemic villages
  • Supplement NPHC Programme through promotion of good sanitation practices and hygiene educ., focusing on access to safe water, & diarrhoea control
  • Supplement UBE Programme through provision of safe water and improved sanitation facilities in primary schools
  • Monitor sub-sector performance for sound policy and strategy adjustment and development

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

critical assumptions
Critical Assumptions
  • Conducive political and socio-economic environment for sustainable planning
  • Role appreciation and collaboration between three tiers of government
  • Sustained political will, interest and commitment by governments
  • Subscription to partnership between government and communities

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

critical assumptions1
Critical Assumptions
  • Consistent and adequate funding from government, communities, OPS and ESAs
  • Attitudinal changes due to increasing transparency and accountability in governance
  • increased and sustained community interest through ICE and promotional activities

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

conceptual framework of the national rwss programme

Hygiene Promotion and Education

Government

Programmes/Projects

FMWR Programme,

State Programme

LGA Programme

State ADP Programme

FMA&RD Programme

NPHC Programme

ESA/Govt.

Programmes/Projects

UNICEF, UNDP

EC, DFID, JICA

WB, AfDB

Rural

Communities

and

Households

Sanitation

Water Supply

NGO/Private Sector

Programmes/Projects

WaterAid, Global 2000

Concern Universal

ECWA, Oil Companies

Rotary International

And Others

Conceptual Framework of the National RWSS Programme

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

rwss programme strategies
RWSS Programme Strategies

Community Ownership

and Management

Demand Responsive

Approach

Programme

Strategies

Demonstrating

and Piloting

Starting Small

and Scaling Up

Partnership and

Collaboration

Cost Sharing

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

community ownership management
Community Ownership & Management

The main thrust of the RWSS programme

  • Individual communities
    • Make all decisions about their WSS facilities
    • Assume responsibility for management
  • LGAs (and NGOs) assist communities
    • Plan and manage their facilities
  • State RWSS Agencies (and NGOs)
    • Assist LGAs establish WSS Departments
    • Provide training and technical support

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

community ownership management1
Community Ownership & Management
  • Federal Government Agencies
    • Promote improved WSS services
  • Private sector
    • Manufacture and sales of equipment/materials
    • Construction of latrines and water systems
    • Repair of water and sanitation facilities

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

demand responsive approach dra
Demand Responsive Approach (DRA)
  • Essential for channelling funds to States, LGAs and communities
  • Programme to respond to demand by each level : Community LGA, State
  • Participation based on:
    • Self-selection using agreed criteria for each level
    • Demand & progress in meeting minimum compliance criteria

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

starting small and scaling up
Starting Small and Scaling Up
  • Strategy for prudent investment in WSS until:
    • Approaches and training materials/methods are refined
    • Key sector personnel are adequately trained
  • Prioritisation of communities that meet the MCC
  • Programme only in criteria compliant States
  • National, State and LGA action plans developed
  • Programme phased into funding cycles

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

demonstrating and piloting
Demonstrating and Piloting
  • Demonstrating
    • To showcase, develop and/or refine project approach
    • Confidence building and advocacy for adoption and wider application
    • Examples: UNDP/WB RISAFIYA project, DFID/WaterAid Oju/Obi WSS Project;
  • Piloting
    • Further testing and wider application of accepted project approaches
    • Initial phase of scaling up of approach to programme e.g. DFID supported FGN/UNICEF WES Project
  • ESAs strategically positioned to support D & P

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

partnership and collaboration
Partnership and Collaboration
  • Key strategy necessary for:
    • Utilising comparative advantage of each Partner
    • Effective service delivery at all levels
    • Ensuring
      • Complimentary of roles
      • Co-ordination and streamlining of efforts
      • Achievement of common goals/objectives

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

cost sharing
Cost Sharing
  • FG major contributor to RWSS programme
  • Community contributes to capital cost: this would indicate:
    • Interest, demand and commitment to project
    • Ownership thereby ensuring service reliability
    • Readiness for O & M thereby ensuring sustainability
  • Cost sharing for capital cost of WS schemes:

Federal State LGA Community

50% 25% 20% 5%

  • Communities bear 100% of O&M cost

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

cost sharing1
Cost Sharing
  • Financing strategy for sanitation based on:
    • Families responsible for household facilities
    • Generating demand for improved sanitation to self-sustaining market for latrine construction
    • LGAs to:
      • fund training of artisans
      • promote improved hygiene and sanitation practices
    • State: mass media promotion of hygiene/latrine
    • Federal: funding research into low cost latrines
    • Recurrent costs borne by three tiers of government

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

critical roles of the lga wss dept
Critical Roles of the LGA WSS Dept.
  • Successful implementation of the RWSS Programme depends on effective participation and cooperation of all stakeholders at all levels and across sectors by:
    • anchoring the coordination at the Federal level
    • creating coordination agencies at the State level
    • devolving responsibility to the LG level
    • promoting management at community level
    • developing human and institutional capacities

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

critical roles of the lga wss dept1
Critical Roles of the LGA WSS Dept.
  • The RWSS Programme Strategic Framework assigns responsibility for coordinating programme implementation to:
    • Dept. of WS & CQ, FMWR at the Federal level
    • RWSS Agencies at the State level
    • WSS Departments at the LG level
    • WASCOMs at community level

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

critical roles of the lga wss dept2
Critical Roles of the LGA WSS Dept.
  • For a State to participate in and benefit from the national programme, it should satisfy, among others, the following basic criteria:
    • Establishment, by an act, of a State RWASSA
    • Establishment, by an act, of LGA Water Supply and Sanitation Departments
    • Provision of adequate and timely budgetary releases to the RWSSA for capital and recurrent expenditures
    • Provision of adequate and timely budgetary releases to the LGA WSS Depts. for capital and recurrent expenditures

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

critical roles of the lga wss dept3
Critical Roles of the LGA WSS Dept.
  • The implementation and coordinating organ at the LG level should necessarily be a full-fledged department
    • all programmes, projects and activities converge at the community level
    • the LGA is the tier of government closest to the communities
    • Water and sanitation issues are multi-disciplinary, thus cut across sectors
    • Water and sanitation issues are most important to rural communities that merit direct representation at the LG Council

D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme

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D. Bashir: The Framework of the National RWSS Programme