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ME 350 – Lecture 1 – Chapter 1 ME 350 Design for Manufacturability Instructor: Bruce Flachsbart, email: email@example.com office hours: Mon: 10-11, 1-2, Fri: 1-2, office: 221A MEB Lab TA’s: Chris Olenek; John Scheider; Phillip Poisson; Ramin Rasoulian Labs will meet in 1227 MEL next week, beginning Aug 31st
Textbooks & References Groover, M. P., Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, Third Edition, John Wiley, 2007 (Available at IUB and Folletts) Make sure you have the DVD with the book. References (available at engineering library): 1) Kalpakjian, S., and Schmid, S.R., Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, Addison Wesley, 4th edition, 2003 2) Callister, W. D, Materials Science and Engineering, Wiley, 2003 3) Devor, Statistical Quality Design & Control, 2006
Grading and Homework Policy Grading: Homework 25% Hour Exams 25% Labs 20% Final Exam 30% Grade Distribution: A to A-: 25-35%, B+ to B-: 35-45% C+ to C-: 20-30%, D to F: < 5% Homework Policy: • HW turned in by 2:59 pm in class on the Tuesday due. • HW 10% penalty after 3 pm, 20% after 5 pm, and not accepted after 1 pm Wednesday Lecture Notes: • Missed lecture material can be gone over during office hours
Three Hour Exams and Final: • In class, close book and notes. Only pencil(s), an eraser, and a calculator are allowed at your desk. Dates: • Typical problems: true/false, short answer, and quantitative analysis (equation sheet provided). • Phone calls or writing after time called will cost per minute or phone call. • Makeup exams: with medical excuse only.
Topics Covered (~30 chapters): • Material properties • Rapid prototype • Machining – CNC/Abrasive/Nontraditional • Molding • Casting • Composite manufacturing • Welding/Soldering/Joining • DFA • MEMS
Why Learning Manufacturing? • Manufacturing employsof engineers in the U.S. (from US Bureau of Economic Analysis) • Manufacturing solution should be an integral part of product design • Linking material properties and mechanics to production aspects
Manufacturing History (part 1) • Late middle ages (1400’s) – birth of the middle class & people specialize into professions • 1439 → • 1760-1830 Industrial Revolution typified by the “” • Manufacturing is moved from home based “handicraft” to assembly in “ ” • The James Watt steam engine replaces water, wind, & animal power as the primary energy source • Cotton Processing (Spinning Jenny, Cotton Gin, Power Loom) brought about the birth of the • Iron foundries are built where coke replaces charcoal and bar iron enables potting and stamping • The Eli Whitney muskets demonstrate the viability of assembly
Manufacturing History (part 2) • 1850-1910 SecondIndustrial Revolution typified by “” • Mass production of steel enables railroads and big machinery • “Canning” of foods – birth of food processing • Birth of the chemical industries including petroleum refining • Factories get electrical power enabling longer work hours ( also invented) • Assembly line manufacturing • The internal combustion engine and the birth of the automobile industry (, 1885) • Scientific management of manufacturing brings about the birth of the field:
Manufacturing History (part 3) • 1980-present Third Industrial Revolution identified by the “ ” • Birth of automation • Expanse of multinational corporations and offshore production • Forth Industrial Revolution?
Manufacturable Materials (part 1) • Metals • Ferrous (based upon ) • Steel – most often an (<2%) alloy, but chromium, magnesium, nickel, and molybdenum alloys are useful • Cast iron – most often an (2-4%) - (0-3%) alloy • Nonferrous & Alloys (all other metals) • Al, Cu, Au, Mg, Ni, Si, Sn, Ti, Zn, etc.
Manufacturable Materials (part 2) • Plastics • – can be heated multiple times (PE, PS, PMMA, etc.) • – cure to a rigid shape (phenolics, epoxies, etc.) • – significant elastic behavior (rubber, silicone, PU, etc.)
Manufacturable Materials (part 3) • Ceramics • Combination of a metal (or semimetal) + inorganic nonmetal • Examples: clay, glass, alumina, metal carbides, semimetal nitrides • Two categories: glasses (which melt) and crystalline ceramics
Manufacturable Materials (part 4) • Composites (not really a separate category of material) Nonhomogeneous mixtures of the other three basic types rather than a unique category. e.g. glass particles or fibers mixed in a polymer “matrix” material, or tungsten carbide in cobalt (metal binder) to make a cutting tool.
Processing Operations • Increases workpart’s value by altering: • shape, • physical property, • appearance • Three categories: • Shaping operations (e.g. , etc.) • Property-enhancing operations (e.g. ) • Surface processing operations (e.g. , etc.)
Shaping Processes: • Solidification processing • Starting material is a heated liquid or semifluid • Particulate processing • Starting material is a powder • Deformation processing • Starting material is a ductile solid (commonly metal) that is deformed to form the part • Material removal processing • Starting material is a solid from which material is removed to form the part • Traditional techniques (turning, drilling, milling) Non-traditional techniques (laser, electron beam, chemical erosion, electric discharge, and electrochemical)
Goal of Shaping Operations • To minimize and in converting a starting workpiece into its final part • Manufacturing processes that convert nearly 100% of the starting material into product is called
Property Enhancing Processes • Processes that do not alter the of the workpiece: • Heat treating (e.g. tempering steel) • Annealing (e.g. to reduce stress in glass) • Sintering (joins and strengthens powder shaped metals and ceramics)
Surface Processes • Cleaning • Both and means to remove dirt, oil, and other contaminants • Surface treatments • Mechanical (e.g. sand blasting or shot peening) • Physical (e.g. diffusion, ion implantation) • Coatings • e.g. painting, anodizing, electroplating, porcelain enameling, thin film deposition, etc.
Assembly Operations Two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity Types of assembly operations: • Joining processes – create a joint • Welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding • Mechanical assembly – fastening by mechanical methods • Threaded fasteners (screws, bolts and nuts); press fitting, expansion fits
What is DFM? • Design for Manufacturability (DFM): By understanding and analyzing the fundamental manufacturing processes, reduce the of production while achieving optimal product • Quality and lifetime of the products should not be left until the test stage, but actively brought into consideration by design, manufacture and assembly. • Rule of 10: order of magnitude increase on the cost of repair when changes are made at later stages (from parts → subassembly → assembly → final product on market → customer)
Summary • Attend lectures, be on time, read chapters, and participate. • We are going to cover a lot of manufacturing processes – their strengths and weaknesses. • We are going to cover the tools to understand and optimize manufacturing. • This class is to help you be able to better design a product for manufacturing.