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Changes since 1600. Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary. 2 Grammatical changes since 1600. I shall deal with these points: Changes in the verb system tense and aspect modal verbs do-support present tense verbal inflexions 2nd-person forms of address group genitive.

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changes since 1600
Changes since 1600
  • Pronunciation
  • Grammar
  • Vocabulary
2 grammatical changes since 1600
2 Grammatical changes since 1600

I shall deal with these points:

  • Changes in the verb system
    • tense and aspect
    • modal verbs
    • do-support
  • present tense verbal inflexions
  • 2nd-person forms of address
  • group genitive
changes since 1600 early modern english
Changes since 1600(Early Modern English)

I shall deal with these points:

  • Changes in the verb system
    • tense and aspect
changes since 1600 early modern english4
Changes since 1600(Early Modern English)

I shall deal with these points:

  • Changes in the verb system
    • tense and aspect
development of the english tense system
Development of the English Tense System

Reduction of the IE tense system →

2 tenses in Germanic

development of the english tense system6
Development of the English Tense System

2 “pure” tenses in Germanic:

traditionally known as “present” and “past”:

  • I think, she thinks – I love, she loves
  • I thought, she thought – I loved, she loved

Compare the periphrastic verbal forms: I have thought, had thought, will think, will have thought, am thinking, will be thinking, might have been thinking, etc., etc.

development of the english tense system7
Development of the English Tense System

2 tenses in Germanic:

traditionally known as “present” and “past”:

  • past = simple past = preterite:

I thought – she thought

slide8

Loss of the simple past in (spoken) French and German

je l’ai vu

je le vis

ich habe ihn gesehen

development of the english tense system9
Development of the English Tense System

2 tenses in Old English:

traditionally known as “present” and “past”:

  • Héo céapað fiscas be þám sǽmannum

she buys fish from the seamen

  • Héo céapode gystran dæg þonne fisc

she bought the fish yesterday

  • se scóp singþ/singeþ
  • se scóp sang
development of the english tense system10
Development of the English Tense System

2 tenses in Germanic:

traditionally known as “present” and “past”:

(why the quotes?)

development of the english tense system11
Past:

she bought – he sang – they laughed

past time

Present:

she buys – he sings – they laugh

unspecified time

Development of the English Tense System
  • Asymmetry between “present” and “past”:

(Note the scare quotes)

development of the english tense system12
Development of the English Tense System

problem with the “present”

  • Héo céapað fiscas be þám sǽmannum
  • Se scóp singþ
  • Héo céapað tó merigen þá fiscas
  • Se scóp singþ tó dæg on æftentíde
  • þætte mon éaþe tóslíteð, þætte næfre gesomnad wæs ....
development of the english tense system13
Development of the English Tense System

problem with the “present”

  • She opens the door and enters the house (Intructions? Narrative present?)
  • She buys fish from the seamen
  • I see her every day
  • I see her on Mondays
  • I see her on Monday
development of the english tense system14

TENSE

ASPECT

Development of the English Tense System

“present” and “past”

“unfinished” – “finished”

  • Héo céapað - se scóp singþ
  • Héo céapode - se scóp sang
development of the english tense system15
Development of the English Tense System

Modern English makes a clear distinction between

  • She buys fish at the market
  • She is buying fish at the market
development of the english tense system16
Development of the English Tense System

Modern English makes a clear distinction between

  • What do you read?
  • What are you reading?
development of the english tense system17
Development of the English Tense System

16th century English does not:

  • What read you my Lord?
  • What do you read my Lord? (Hamlet)
development of the english tense system18
Development of the English Tense System

Modern English makes a clear distinction between

  • I never saw her
  • I have never seen her
development of the english tense system19
Development of the English Tense System

16th century English does not:

  • I never saw so fair a child
slide21
In OE and ME and even later the simple past could be used where we would now use a perfective:
    • Næfre ic ne gesáwe swá fæger cild
slide22
In OE and ME and even later the simple past could be used where we would now use a perfective:
    • Næfre ic ne gesáwe swá fæger cild
    • Se Ælfric wæs þá abbot siððon fiftig wintre (OE Chr. 956)
slide23
In OE and ME and even later the simple past could be used where we would now use a perfective:
    • Næfre ic ne gesáwe swá fæger cild
    • Se Ælfric wæs þá abbot siððon fiftig wintre (OE Chr. 956)
    • I was not angry since I came to France (Shakespeare)
slide24
In OE and ME and even later the simple past could be used where we would now use a perfective:
    • Næfre ic ne gesáwe swá fæger cild
    • Se Ælfric wæs þá abbot siððon fiftig wintre (OE Chr. 956)
    • I was not angry since I came to France (Shakespeare)
    • Ne’er saw I, never felt a calm so deep (Wordsworth)
slide25
In OE and ME and even later the simple past could be used where we would now use a perfective:
    • Næfre ic ne gesáwe swá fæger cild
    • Se Ælfric wæs þá abbot siððon fiftig wintre (OE Chr. 956)
    • I was not angry since I came to France (Shakespeare)
    • Ne’er saw I, never felt a calm so deep (Wordsworth)

But also:

      • I have done the deed (Shakespeare)
development of the perfect
Development of the perfect

How did the form have + past participle arise?

We have heard this song

have heard

We

this song

development of the perfect27
Development of the perfect

How did the form have + past participle arise?

We have heard this song

have

We

heard

this song

slide28

have

We

heard

this song

habbað

þisne sang

gehyred-ne

við

höfum

þennan söng

heyrð-an

wé habbað þisne sang gehyredne

slide29

Ég hef þennan mann áður séðan

Við höfum vopn þeirra tekin

Hann hafði þá konuna þegar kvænta

slide30

wé habbað þisne sang gehyredne

við höfum þennan söng heyrðan

wé habbað þisne sang gehyred

við höfum þennan söng heyrt

we hauen þis song yhered

we have (y)hered þis song

we have heard this song

slide31

Another example:

  • Ic hine ne gesáwe siððon þritig dagas
    • (“I saw him not since 3 days”)
  • Ic ne hæbbe hine gesawenne siððon þritig dagas
  • Ic ne hæbbe hine gesawen siððon þritig dagas
  • I haue him noht ysene þese thirtie dayes
  • I have not seen him for thirty days
slide32

Intransitive verbs used be + past participle:

        • Se weall is gefeallen
        • Þe wall is (y)fallen
        • The wall has fallen down
        • Ic eom gecumen
        • I am come
        • I have come
slide33

Modal Verbs

These verbs have changed their meaning since OE:

slide34

Modal Verbs

Note how the correponding Icelandic verbs kann and vil have retained their meaning:

slide35

Preterite-present verbs

Why do can may shall will not take -s in the 3rd person singular?

Originally, some preterite-present verbs had a preterite (past) form but a present meaning.

hé cann

‘he knows

how to’

hann kann

hún veit

héo wát

‘she knows’

And then they acquired a new past tense:

hé cúþe

‘he knew

how to’

hann kunni

hún vissi

héo wisste

‘she knew’

slide36

Preterite-present verbs

Why do can may shall will not take -s in the 3rd person singular?

Originally, some preterite-present verbs had a preterite (past) form but a present meaning.

Later, other verbs such as “will” and “dare” started to behave the same

slide37

Compound future

  • will originally means ‘wish, desire, intend’
      • cf. Icelandic vilja
  • shall originally means ‘owe’
      • cf. Icelandic skuld
slide38

Compound future

  • will originally means ‘wish, desire, intend’
      • cf. Icelandic vilja
  • shall originally means ‘owe’
      • cf. Icelandic skuld

hé wille þæt hors céapian

he wants (is going?) to buy the horse

Gif þú æfre cymst tó þære stówe, þonne wilt þú cweþan þæt heo swíþe unfæger síe

if you ever come to that place, you will say

that it is (subjunctive) very ugly

slide39

Compound future

  • will originally means ‘wish, desire, intend’
      • cf. Icelandic vilja
  • shall originally means ‘owe’
      • cf. Icelandic skuld

Hú micel scealt þú mínum hlaforde?

How much do you owe to my Lord ?

Þú scealt on æghwelc tíd Godes willan wercan.

Thou shalt always do God’s will.

Þú scealt gréot etan þíne lífdagas.

Thou shalt eat stones all the days of thy life.

slide40

Compound future

18th-century prescriptivism dertermined the use of “shall” and “will according to person:

I shall, we shall

you will, he will, they will

slide41

Do support

Affirmative

I saw the Queen arrive

I did see the Queen arrive

Interrogative

Saw you the Queen arrive?

Did you see the Queen arrive

Negative

We saw not the Queen arrive

We did not see the Queen arrive

slide42

Do support

Affirmative

Goes back to OE; very common 1500-1700; died out in prose in 18th century.

She ded call after hym ryght pyteousli (Caxton 1489)

Used to avoid inversion

There did I see that low-spirited Swaine (Shakespeare)

Not a single word did Peggotty speak (Dickens)

Well do I remember the scene

Now only emphatic / repetitive / contradictive

But we do want them

slide43

Do support

Interrogative

The original form was simple inversion:

  • slæpest þú ‘do you sleep?’
  • What rowne ye with oure mayde ?
    • ‘What are you whispering to our girl?’ (Chaucer)
slide44

Do support

Interrogative

The original form was simple inversion.

Chaucer occasionally uses do:

Fader why do ye wepe? (=Fader why wepe ye?)

slide45

Do support

Interrogative

The original form was simple inversion.

Chaucer occasionally uses do.

Shakespeare could use both simple inversion and do:

How say you, Lady? ‘What’s your opinion, Lady?

Had he his hurts before? (Siward, Macbeth)

Wash they his wounds with tears?

Why dost though whet thy knife so earnestly? (Merchant of Venice)

Do you bite your thumb at us, sir? (Romeo and Juliet)

Dost thou forget from what a torment I did free thee? (Tempest)

slide46

Do support

Negative

The development is as follows:

OE: héo ne lufode hine

early ME: ho ne luvede him

later ME: sche ne luvede him noht

Early Modern: she loved him not

Modern English: she did not love him

Some verbs can still use simple “not”:

I know not, it matters not, I think not

won’t shan’t aren’t isn’t wasn’t

am’t an't ain't

slide50

be

  • Eight forms in Standard Modern English:
    • be been being
    • am is are
    • was were
  • Non-overlaping grammatical functions
slide51

be

  • Three original verbs
    • Indo-European es- ‘be’
        • > is am are
    • Indo-European beu- ‘become’
        • > be been being
    • Germanic wes- ‘remain, stay’
        • > was, were
slide53

be

Early Modern English:

the Shakespearean verb ‘to be’ had two alternative forms

in the present:

I am I be

thou art thou beest

he is he be (older beeth, bith)

we are we be (been, beeth)

you are you be (been, beeth)

they are they be (been, beeth)

slide54

do, have

  • 2nd person sg:
    • dost, hast
    • What dost thou think?
    • What hast thou eaten?
  • 3rd person sg:
    • doth, hath
    • What doth he say?
    • What hath he eaten?
slide55

Forms of address:2nd person forms

OE had singular, dual and plural

slide56

Forms of address:2nd person forms

OE and Old Norse had singular, dual and plural

slide57

Forms of address:2nd person forms

In Middle English, the dual disappeared

slide58

Forms of address:2nd person forms

In Late Middle English, the plural form came to be used as a sign of respect

slide59

Forms of address:2nd person forms

In Early Modern English, the singular (familiar) form

was increasingly used as a sign of contempt:

slide60

PAROLLES. I beseech your honour to hear me one single word.

LAFEU. You beg a single penny more; come, you shall ha't; save your word.

PAROLLES. My name, my good lord, is Parolles.

LAFEU. You beg more than word then. Cox my passion! give me your hand. [....]

PAROLLES. It lies in you, my lord, to bring me in some grace, for you did bring me out.

LAFEU. Out upon thee, knave! Dost thou put upon me at once both the office of God and the devil? One brings thee in grace, and the other brings thee out.

All’s Well that Ends Wel.

slide61

Forms of address:2nd person forms

Only you, your remain in Modern English

slide62

Group genitive

Early Modern English:

The Dukes sonne of Norfolk

(-s is a bound morpheme)

slide63

Group genitive

Early Modern English:

The Dukes sonne of Norfolk

(-s is a bound morpheme)

Modern English:

The Duchess of Norfolk's daughter

slide64

Group genitive

Early Modern English:

The Dukes sonne of Norfolk

(-s is a bound morpheme)

Modern English:

[The Duchess of Norfolk] 's daughter

slide65

Group genitive

Early Modern English:

The Dukes sonne of Norfolk

(-s is a bound morpheme)

Modern English:

[The Duchess of Norfolk] 's daughter

(-s is a clitic attached to the NP)

slide66

Group genitive

Early Modern English:

The Dukes sonne of Norfolk

(-s is a bound morpheme)

Modern English:

The Duchess of Norfolk's daughter

(-s is a clitic attached to the NP)

The bloke we gave a lift to's dog.

changes since 160067
Changes since 1600
  • Pronunciation
  • Grammar
  • Vocabulary