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  1. 1-1

  2. 1-2

  3. PBLs, TURBULENCE AND TROPICAL CYCLONES Courtesy NOAA 1-3

  4. CD Donelan etal, 2004 Maximum azimuthal wind speed (Emanuel, 2004) 1-4

  5. PBLs, TURBULENCE AND CLIMATE Stratocumulus cloud deck off the California coast Courtesy Bjorn Stevens (UCLA) from DYCOMS II 1-5


  6. ENTRAINMENT AND STRATOCUMULUS Z warm cool DILUTION OF STRATUS BY ENTRAINMENT OF DRY WARM AIR ABOVE THE CLOUD DECK IS DETERMINED BY COMPLEX COUPLINGS OF TURBULENCE, RADIATION, AND CLOUD MICROPHYSICS. LARGE ENTRAINMENT RATES THIN THE CLOUD DECK WHICH RADICALLY ALTER THE RADIATIVE FORCING AT THE WATER SURFACE. THESE CHANGES IN SOLAR HEATING EXCEED EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH RELEASE OF GREENHOUSE GASES. STRATUS ACCOUNT FOR 1/3 OF THE CLOUDS OVER THE OCEAN. 1-6

  7. Before Bonnie SST Variations, Ocean Mixing and Biology . . After Bonnie . . . . Shuyi Chen, RSMAS . . . 1-7

  8. PBLs, TURBULENCE AND DISPERSION Urban smog from the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore metropolitan area contained by the summit ridgeline of South Mountain on the western side of the Shenandoah Valley. (Photo:J.Van Gundy) 1-8

  9. PBLs, TURBULENCE AND WIND POWER Power generation from large wind turbines is a growing industry. Machines are often located in heterogeneous locations that induce complex surface layer turbulence. The machines shown in these photographs are sited off the Australian coast to take advantage of persistent sea breezes. They are frequently buffeted by separated turbulent flow that develops over the sea cliff which impacts their performance. Courtesy Keith Ayotte, Wind Lab Systems, Australia 1-9

  10. BULK STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERIC PBL `` We define the boundary layer as that part of the troposphere that is directly influenced by the presence of the Earth’s surface, and responds to surface forcings with a timescale of about an hour or less …” [Stull(1998)] 1-10

  11. 1-11

  12. LIDAR OBSERVATIONS OF PBL DIURNAL EVOLUTION Local Time Courtesy Shane Mayor NCAR 1-12

  13. Local Time 1-13

  14. “VIRTUAL” TURBULENCE EVIDENCE FROM NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS 1-14

  15. 1-15

  16. Z Y X 1-16

  17. hot cool Z Y X 1-17

  18. EVOLUTION OF ENSTROPHY IN AN X-Y PLANE Y X turbulent steady periodic quasi-periodic 1-18

  19. 1-19

  20. Average of the turbulent flow in time T (min) 1-20

  21. 0 1-21

  22. 0 0 1-22

  23. 0 1-23

  24. 1-24

  25. Hot summer day Stratus Day after rainfall Pollutant advection 1-25

  26. 1-26

  27. 1-27

  28. MEAN AND TURBULENT FLUX PROFILES FOR PBLS WITH VARYING STRATIFICATION LES RESULTS MOENG & SULLIVAN (1994) 1-28

  29. Surface layer 0 0 Idealized wind and turbulent flux profiles 1-29

  30. (x,y) usually aligned with the mean wind 1-30

  31. Stable Neutral Unstable 0 1-31

  32. You are a fluid dynamicist visiting the Louvre in Paris and are asked by the curator to comment on the above paintings. What do you say? 1-32