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The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century Introduction to the Literary Period Feature Menu Interactive Time Line Milestone: Cromwell and the Commonwealth Milestone: The Restoration of Charles II Milestone: The Neoclassical Period Milestone: The Age of Reason Milestone: The Bloodless Revolution Milestone: The Growth of a New Reading Public What Have You Learned?
The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century Choose a link on the time line to go to a milestone. 1688–1689 The Bloodless Revolution 1660 The Restoration of Charles II 1650 1700 1750 1800 1653–1658 Cromwell and the Commonwealth 1700s The Growth of a New Reading Public 1600s–1700sThe Neoclassical Period The Age of Reason
Cromwell and the Commonwealth 1642–1649 • England is embroiled in civil war—parliamentary party (Puritans) against the king’s party (Royalists) • King Charles I beheaded 1653–1658 • Oliver Cromwell rules England as lord protector • Strict Puritan laws—eventually military rule by Cromwell as dictator • Theaters were closed, arts suppressed
Charles II The Restoration of Charles II 1658–1660 • Puritan dictator Oliver Cromwell dies • Parliament invites Charles I’s son back from exile • Charles II crowned; monarchy restored • English traditions also revived: horse racing, bear-baiting, dancing around the maypole
The Restoration of Charles II Charles II (ruled 1660–1685) • Anglican Church (Church of England) reestablished • Other sects (including Puritan sects) outlawed and persecuted • Theaters reopened • Charles set the tone for courtly life: extravagance and refinement
The Haves • The Have-Nots • greatly influenced by the French in furniture, dress, manners • met in coffeehouses and formal gardens • liked colorful and extravagant fashions • enjoyed theatergoing, dining, drinking, card playing, gambling • overcrowded tenements; rats, lice, bedbugs • no access to doctors, police, or education • young children forced to work • filthy streets • disease prevalent • death rate higher than birth rate The Restoration of Charles II Society During the Restoration and the 1700s
The Augustan Age and the Neoclassical Period Period between 1660 and 1800 sometimes called Augustan Age—name comes fromcomparisons with the reign of Octavian (Augustus) in ancient Rome • Augustus restored peace and order to Rome after assassination of Julius Caesar • Stuart monarchs restored peace and order to England after civil wars
The Augustan Age and the Neoclassical Period Period between 1660 and 1800 sometimes called Neoclassical Period—termmeans “new classical”; refers to writings modeled on old Latin works Classics were considered valuable because they represented what was permanent and universal in human experience. Click here to listen to a neoclassical recording.
During Enlightenment, people . . . • Before Enlightenment, people . . . • heard more scientific explanations for natural phenomena • started asking how questions instead of why questions • thought unusual events such as earthquakes and comets were punishments or warnings from God • asked why these things happened The Enlightenment and the Age of Reason Period between 1660 and 1800 sometimes called Enlightenment or Age of Reason—labels that reveal changes in people’s view of the world
The Enlightenment and the Age of Reason Sir Isaac Newton • Scientists begin to explain workings of human body, universe • Natural phenomena less mysterious and frightening • Rise of deism—belief that Creator set the world in motion and then let it run by itself
William and Mary The Bloodless Revolution Beginning in 1685 • Charles II dies; his brother James II (a Roman Catholic) takes throne • Power is transferred to James’s daughter Mary (wife of Dutch William of Orange, a Protestant) • 1688 William attacks England; James flees • 1689 Parliament declares William and Mary king and queen; Protestant rule restored
More people inmiddle classes able to read Readers with different tastes and interests Writers focusingmore on middle- class concerns The Growth of a New Reading Public Throughout the Period . . . The Age of Satire Alexander Pope—attacks upper classes for immorality and bad taste Jonathan Swift—exposes the mean and sordid in human behavior
The Growth of a New Reading Public Journalism: A New Profession Eighteenth-century journalists • published journals; described social and political matters • saw themselves as reformers Daniel Defoe—stood for thrift, prudence, industry, respectability Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele—essayists andjournalists
Elegy Satire Ode praises a personwho has died ridicules a person or typeof behavior is generally written forpublic occasions The Growth of a New Reading Public Augustan Poets • wrote poetry of the mind, not the soul • saw poetry as having a public function • set out to write a particular kind of poem: Poems were carefully constructed and used exact meter and rhyme.
The Growth of a New Reading Public The First English Novels • Corresponded to development of the middle class • Often broad and comical • Adventures frequently recounted in a series of episodes or letters
What Have You Learned? Choose the word or phrase that correctly completes the sentence. 1. After Oliver Cromwell died, _____ was crowned King of England in 1660. a. Elizabeth b. William of Orange c. Charles II 2. Writers like Pope and Swift used _____ to expose moral corruption. a. satire b. elegies c. odes 3. The _____ was a new literary form developed during the eighteenth century. a. letter b. novel c. sonnet c. Charles II a. satire b. novel