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Famines. Sources: The World Food Problem (2009, Leathers and Foster) World Hunger 12 Myths (1998, Lappe, Collins, and Rossett). Irish Potato Famine. 1845-1849 potato blight 1 million died of starvation 1.5 million emigrated Ireland a colony of England Exported wheat and beef to England

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Famines l.jpg

Famines

Sources:

The World Food Problem (2009, Leathers and Foster)

World Hunger 12 Myths (1998, Lappe, Collins, and Rossett)


Irish potato famine l.jpg
Irish Potato Famine

  • 1845-1849 potato blight

  • 1 million died of starvation

    • 1.5 million emigrated

  • Ireland a colony of England

    • Exported wheat and beef to England

    • Peasants had small plots of potatoes

  • Famine: wheat and beef still exported

    • Peasants did not own the land

    • Starved in the midst of plenty

      • They did not own

  • Europe also had blight but starvation only in Ireland

    • British policies

http://www.gormanfamilytree.com/images/famine2.jpg


Slide3 l.jpg

British Army enforced food export during Irish potato famine

http://www.irishholocaust.org/1024-map.gif/1024-map-full.jpg


Great famine india 1876 8 l.jpg
Great Famine, India 1876-8

  • India a British Colony

  • British policies:

    • Land converted to British plantations

    • Exports of crops to Europe

    • Taxed India to support British wars

    • Price of food rose

  • Drought decreased production

  • British response:

    • Inaction, discouraged famine relief

      • Thought to be too expensive

      • Thought relief would encourage shirking of Indian workers

  • Result: 5 million starved to death

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Famine_of_1876%E2%80%9378

http://www.sott.net/signs/images/indian_family.jpg

http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Famine-in-India


Colonial economic system l.jpg
Colonial Economic System

Empire

Conquest

Wealth, Taxes

Food, Resources

Colonies


People most vulnerable to famine l.jpg
People Most Vulnerable to Famine

  • Poor rural people: crop failure

    • Small scale farmers

    • Unemployed tenant farmers

    • Landless agriculture workers

    • Conquered nations

  • Pastoralists

    • Drought

    • Low animal prices

http://www.sonic.net/~evolve/wp/human_ecology/sudan_famine_7.jpg


Bangladesh famine 1974 l.jpg
Bangladesh Famine, 1974

  • 100,000 died

  • Blamed on floods that destroyed crops

  • Actually never a shortage of food

  • Wealthy farmers hoarded food

  • Poor could not afford to buy food

http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/files/images/migrated/MultimediaFiles/Live/Image/4422.jpg


Sub saharan africa sahel l.jpg
Sub-Saharan Africa (Sahel)

  • Recurring Famines 70s, 80s

  • Blamed on Drought

    • But grow enough to feed everybody

  • Exports continued: cotton, vegetables, peanuts

  • Poor, indebted farmers suffer most

  • Desertification a problem

  • Aid supported export crops

http://filipspagnoli.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/famine.jpg



Ethiopia l.jpg
Ethiopia

  • Drought 1982-85:

    • 300,000 people died

  • Drought uneven:

    • affected only 30% of land

  • Civil War:

    • post-colonial problem

  • Government spent billions on military

    • incurred huge debt: encouraged cash crops

  • Government farms fed military

    • huge army reduced numbers of farm workers

  • 800,000 relocated

http://i.timeinc.net/time/magazine/archive/covers/1987/1101871221_400.jpg


Rwanda l.jpg
Rwanda

  • 1990s: Genocide, civil war, starving refugees

  • Country dependent on coffee exports:

    • prices dropped plunging economy into crisis

  • World Bank, IMF “structural adjustment”

  • doubled number in poverty

  • Rebels attacked most fertile region

  • Ethnic tensions left over from colonialism exploded

    • 500,000 killed: Genocide

  • Crop production dropped

    • economy collapsed

Rwanda refugees

http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/0fel9bt89f5XY/610x.jpg


Slide12 l.jpg

http://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gifhttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif


Sudan l.jpg
Sudanhttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

  • Rebellion in Darfur starting 2003

    • Region size of France

  • Farming villages bombed

    • by Sudan government

    • To fight rebels

  • Ethnic cleansing

    • by Pro-Arab militia (Janjaweed)

      • kill, rape, burn

    • Genocide?

  • 2.5 million refugees

    • 200,000- 450,000 dead

      • Many from starvation

Refugees in Darfur, Sudan

http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/sudan_genocide_genocide_in_sudan.php


Conflicts and poverty l.jpg
Conflicts and Povertyhttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

http://www.cybertext.net.au/student07_inet__may/otherConferences/Poverty_conflict_map.jpg


Famines are a social disaster l.jpg
Famines are a Social Disasterhttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

  • Vulnerability of the poor

    • Disasters result in poor losing land

      • Opportunity for the rich?

  • Claim to food may be lost

    • If too poor to buy food

    • Right to food?

  • Vulnerability of agriculture to nature

    • Poor conservation due to economic pressure

  • Hunger used as a weapon

Ethiopia 1980

http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/images/nwaz_02_img0201.jpg


Ukraine famine l.jpg
Ukraine Faminehttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

  • Policy: Soviet Union established collective farms in 1930s

  • Policy: Quotas set for farm production

  • Policy: Food seized from farms to make quotas

  • 6-8 million Ukrainians died 1932-1933

http://www.gnosticliberationfront.com/Image14.jpg


Great leap forward famine 1959 1961 l.jpg
Great Leap Forward Faminehttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif1959-1961

  • Policy & Ideology: China reorganized farms into large communes

    • Huge production predicted

  • Policy: Food exports increased in 1959

    • Based on predictions

  • Poor weather resulted in low production

  • 30 million people died

Propaganda Poster

http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/ChinaLinks-New/Images-ChinaLinks1-07/glf.jpg


Great leap forward famine l.jpg
Great Leap Forward Faminehttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

Government

Totalitarian

Economy

Ideology

Collective Farms

Communism


North korean famine l.jpg
North Korean Faminehttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

  • 1990s – 500,000 - 3Million died of starvation

    • N. Korea doesn’t grow enough food for it’s population

    • Food rationed by government

    • Priority to military and party loyalists

    • With collapse of Soviet Union, grain aid reduced in 1990s

    • Industrial base too weak to afford grain imports

    • Military:

      • 1.2 million soldiers

      • ¼ N. Korean budget

http://www.nkfreedom.org/fileadmin/Image_Archive/Photo_2girls.jpg


Disaster relief needs l.jpg
Disaster Relief Needshttp://www.robrogers.com/cartoons/2005/images/030305%20Hotel%20Rwanda.gif

  • Better governance:

    • democracy

  • Early warning

    • rapid response

  • Increase food availability

    • Discourage hoarding

    • Domestic production

  • Distribution to needy

    • Food or cash

  • Stabilization of food prices

Liberia refugee children

http://www.americanphotojournalist.com/News/145-8.jpg