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World History. Chapter 2: Section Four. Egyptian Civ. . Religion affected daily life in Egypt What we know comes from inscriptions on walls and tombs. Gods and Goddesses. Sun god was tops – Re Became associated with Amon Called Amon-Re – great god

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world history

World History

Chapter 2: Section Four

egyptian civ
Egyptian Civ.
  • Religion affected daily life in Egypt
  • What we know comes from inscriptions on walls and tombs
gods and goddesses
Gods and Goddesses
  • Sun god was tops – Re
  • Became associated with Amon
  • Called Amon-Re – great god
  • Pharaohs received right to rule from Amon-Re
  • Osiris and Isis – Osiris ruled underworld and the Nile – controlled annual flood
  • Isis – taught women to weave cloth, grind corn, spin flax and raise children
Amenhotep IV – tried to reshape religion
  • He served Aton – minor god
  • Changed name to Akhenaton
  • Ordered priests to only serve Aton
  • Most ignored him and after he died they went back to their old ways
  • All Egyptians believed in afterlife
  • Soul had to pass test to win eternal life
  • Ferried across lake of fire to Hall of Osiris – heart was weighed against the feather of truth
  • Sinners – fed to the Eater of Death
  • Worthy – field of food – live forever
  • To survive underworld – used book of the dead – spells, charms, formulas
preparation of the dead
Preparation of the Dead
  • Afterlife – much like life on Earth
  • Buried dead with everything they would need
  • Mummification - preservation of the body – embalm, wrap in cloth
  • At first only rulers/nobles
  • Then ordinary people and pets
  • New Kingdom – pharaohs buried in the Valley of the Kings
  • Tombs filled with treasure – robbed long ago
  • Tutankhamen’s tomb untouched and offered many artifacts and information
  • Solid gold coffin etc. on display in Cairo museum
  • Pharaoh at the top with royal family
  • Government officials
  • High priests and priestesses
  • Merchants, scribes, artisans
  • Peasants and slaves
  • Most people were farmers – offseason – they worked for Pharaoh building palaces, temples, tombs
social change
Social Change
  • Trade and warfare increased
  • More trade = more money = more business opportunities = more business for artisans
  • Generally had a higher status than in other civilizations
  • Ramses II said a woman could go where she wanted and no one could stop her
  • Own property, business deals, buy and sell, go to court, obtain a divorce
  • Women made perfumes, textiles, doctors, managed estates, priests
  • Few women learned to read and write
  • If they did they were still excluded from government
advances in learning
Advances in Learning
  • Developed writing – multiple
  • Hieroglyphics – system of pictures represent objects, concepts or sounds
  • Often carved in stone
  • Hieratic – simpler writing for everyday use – cursive form of writing by simplifying hieroglyphs
Papyrus – paper like writing material from plants
  • Writing on this was easier than chiseling in stone
  • Official writing was still done in stone
rosetta stone
Rosetta Stone
  • Meanings of hieroglyphs lost
  • 1800’s – Jean Champollion deciphered hieroglyphs by decoding the Rosetta Stone
  • Flat black stone – has the same passage in three languages – hieroglyphs, demotic script, Greek
  • By comparing them, found the meaning of many hieroglyphs
  • Scholars could now read ancient records of Egypt
science and math
Science and Math
  • Accumulated knowledge in medicine, astronomy, math
  • Physicians believed in magic
  • Learned about the body through mummification
  • Could diagnose and cure
  • Performed surgeries
  • Used herbal remedies
  • Mapped constellations –calendar 12 months, 30 days
  • Geometry to survey land and build pyramids
egyptian art and literature
Egyptian Art and Literature
  • Statues, paintings, poems, stories, carvings
  • Show everyday scenes in life: Farming, family life, ceremonies
  • The larger the person drawn / Carved = importance
  • Sphinx – pharaoh as lion / man
  • Oldest – hymns and prayers to gods, proverbs and love poems