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REFERENCES dalam ARTIKEL JURNAL. Klinik Jurnal PPSUB 14 Februari 2013. Int. J. Environ. Res., 2(1): 49-60, Winter 2008 The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on PM10 Concentrations in Kathmandu Valley Giri , D. Krishna Murthy, V. and Adhikary , P.R. REFERENCES

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KlinikJurnal PPSUB 14 Februari 2013


Int. J. Environ. Res., 2(1): 49-60, Winter 2008

The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on PM10 Concentrations in Kathmandu Valley

Giri, D. Krishna Murthy, V. and Adhikary, P.R.


Alpert, P., Kaufman, Y. J., Shay-El, Y., Tanré, D., Da Silva, A. S., Schubert, S. and Joseph J. H., (1998). Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere. Nature, 395, 367–370.

Broomfield, P., Royle, J. A., Steinberg, L. J. and Yang Q., (1996). Accounting for meteorological effects in measuring urban ozone levels and trends.Atmos. Environ., 17, 3067–3077.

Chang, K. H., Jeng, F. T., Tsai, Y. L. and Lin, P. L., (2000). Modeling of long-range transport on Taiwan’s acid deposition under different weather conditions.Atmos, Environ., 34, 3281–3295.

Davis, J. M., Eder, B. K., Nychka, D. and Yang Q., (1998). Modeling the effects of meteorology on ozone in Houston using cluster analysis and generalized additive models. Atmos. Environ., 32, 2505–2520.


International Journal of Rural Management, 3(1), 2007: 27–41


Amrita Sharma


Deshingkar, P. and D. Start. 2003.‘Seasonal Migration for Livelihoods in India: Coping, Accumulation and Exclusion.’ ODI Working Paper No. 220. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Glauben, T., H. Tietje and C. Weiss. 2003.‘Agriculture on the move: Exploring Regional Difference in Farm Exit Rates’.Working Paper EWP 0308, Department of Food Economics and Consumption Studies, University of Kiel.

Gupta, D. 2005.‘Whither the Indian Village: Culture and Agriculture in “Rural” India’.Economic and Political Weekly, 40 (7).

Haberfeld, Y., R.K. Menaria, B.B. Sahoo and R.N. Vyas. 1999.‘Seasonal Migration of Rural Labor in India’.Population Research and Policy Review, 18 (5).


Biological Conservation 145 (2012) 171–178

Green corridors in urban landscapes affect the arthropod communities of domestic gardens

Alan Vergnes , Isabelle Le Viol, Philippe Clergeau


Alaruikka, D., Kotze, D.J., Matveinen, K., Niemelä, J., 2002. Carabid beetle and spider assemblages along a forested urban–rural gradient in Southern Finland. Journal of Insect Conservation 6, 195–206.

Bailey, S., 2007. Increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes: an investigation of evidence for biodiversity gain in woodlands. Forest Ecology and Management 238, 7–23.

Baum, K.A., Haynes, K.J., Dillemuth, F.P., Cronin, J.T., 2004. The matrix enhances the effectiveness of corridors and stepping stones. Ecology 85, 2671–2676.

Harvey, J.A., Nellist, D.R., Telfer, M.G., 2002. Provisional Atlas of British Spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Biological Records Centre, Wallingford, UK.


On the Role of Social Interaction in Individual Agency

Hanne De Jaegher , Tom Froese

International Society for Adaptive Behavior (2009), Vol 17(5): 444–460.


Ashby, W. R. (1960).Design for a brain: The origin of adaptive behavior (2nd ed.).London, UK: Chapman and Hall.

Auvray, M., Lenay, C., & Stewart, J. (2009). Perceptual interactions in a minimalist virtual environment.New Ideas in Psychology, 27(1), 32–47.

Barandiaran, X., Di Paolo, E., & M. Rohde. (2009). Defining agency: individuality, normativity, asymmetry and spatio-temporality in action.Adaptive Behavior, 17, 367–386.

Beer, R. D. (1995). A dynamical systems perspective on agent-environment interaction.Artificial Intelligence, 72(1–2), 173–215.


Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 11 (2012) 65– 71

Risk of root intrusion by tree and shrub species into sewer pipes in Swedish urban areas

Johan Östberga, Max Martinssonb, ÖrjanStål , Ann-Mari Franssona


Aldén, B., Ryman, S., 2009. VåraKulturväxtersNamn (Cultivated plant names). Formas, Stockholm (in Swedish).

Bosseler, B., Stützel, T., Bennerscheidt, C., 2008. Root penetration in sewers: causes, tests and prevention. In: COST Action C15 Improving Relations between Technical Infrastructure and Vegetation. COST Office, Alnarp.

Burn, L.S., Lu, J.P., Whittle, A.J., 2000. Elastomeric joint performance of PVC, VC and FRC pipes. Polymer Engineering & Science 40 (10), 2217–2226.

Randrup, T., McPherson, G., Costello, L., 2001. Tree root intrusion in sewer systems: review of extent and costs.Journal of Infrastructure Systems 7 (1), 26–31.


AgroforestSyst (2007) 69:77–88

The effects of flooding on several hybrid poplar clones in Northern China

Ji-Rui Gong , Xin-Shi Zhang , Yong-Mei Huang , Chun-Lai Zhang


Alscher RG, Cumming JR (1990) Stress responses in plants: adaptation and acclimation mechanisms. Plant Biol 12:1–15

Armstrong W, Brandle R, Jackson MB (1994) Mechanism of flood tolerance in plants. ActaBotNeerl 43:307–358

Brandle R (1991) Flooding resistance of rhizomatous amphibious plants. In: Jackson MB, Davis DD, Lambers H (eds) Plant Life Under Oxygen Deprivation. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 35–46

Chen HJ, Robert GQ, Glenn CM (2002) Adaptive responses of Lepidiumlatifolium to soil flooding: biomass allocation, adventitious rooting, aerenchyma formation and ethylene production. Env Exp Bot 48:119–128.


The Effect of the Social Security Earnings Test on Male Labor Supply. New Evidence from Survey and Administrative Data

Steven J. Haider, David S. Loughran



Baker, Michael, and Dwayne Benjamin. 1999.‘‘How Do Retirement Tests Affect the Labour Supply of Older Men?’’ Journal of Public Economics 71(1):27–52.

Blundell, Richard, and Thomas MaCurdy. 1999. ‘‘Labor Supply: A Review of Alternative Approaches.’’In Handbook of Labor Economics (Volume 3A), eds.OrleyAshenfelter and David Card, 1559–695. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Borjas, George. 2005.Labor Economics (Third Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin Press.

Bound, John, and Alan B. Krueger. 1991.‘‘The Extent of Measurement Error in Longitudinal Earnings Data: Do Two Wrongs Make a Right?’’ Journal of Labor Economics 9(11):1–24.


Writing a Bibliography: APA Format


Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials of the first and middle names are given. If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.

For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Underlining or Italics?

When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.

Hanging Indentation

All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2".



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation

The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.

If there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the rest.

Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the name of the author. Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Books Format:Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company.


Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: A history of the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.

Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader's guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Encyclopedia & Dictionary

Format:Author's last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages). City of publication: Publishing company.


Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.

Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Magazine & Newspaper Articles

Format:Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages. Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without "pp." If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.


Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.

Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.

Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Website or Webpage

Format:Online periodical:Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL

Online document:Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use "n.d." (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There is no period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Website or Webpage


Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from

Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from

GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from

Health Canada. (2002, February). The safety of genetically modified food crops. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from

Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from



Writing a Bibliography: APA Format

Contoh: References

Battery. (1990). Encyclopedia britannica. (pp. 100-101). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Best batteries. (December 1994). Consumer Reports Magazine, 32, 71-72.

Booth, Steven A. (January 1999). High-Drain Alkaline AA-Batteries. Popular Electronics, 62, 58.

Brain, Marshall. How batteries work. howstuffworks. Retrieved August 1, 2006, from

Cells and batteries. (1993). The DK science encyclopedia. New York: DK Publishing.

Dell, R. M., and D. A. J. Rand. (2001). Understanding batteries. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Learning center. Energizer. Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Retrieved August 1, 2006, from

Learning centre. Duracell. The Gillette Company. Retrieved July 31, 2006, from



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide


A crucial part of your academic studies is to read extensively around your discipline area and integrate other people’s ideas and research into your learning. You will have to use ‘evidence’ from the literature to support the conclusions you want to make.

When you do this as part of an assignment, you need to make sure the reader knows where you are getting your information or evidence from, and how this fits with your own ideas and conclusions. When using somebody else’s ideas, research data, evidence an d conclusions, these need to be clearly acknowledged so that they can be distinguished from your own work. The reader is then able to see how you have integrated your reading with your writing and can track down the original resources if they so wish. Using and acknowledging other people’s work in your assignments is also a way of demonstrating the reading you have been doing.

Acknowledging resources usually takes place both within the text of an assignment and in a reference list at the end . Each School has a standard format for doing this which all students are requested to adhere to, Biological and Environmental Studies use the Journal of Ecology style.



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide

Citing References within your Essay:

In -text citations

Do not use numbered referencing, use in-text citations and a reference list in alphabetical order of the first author’s name

When referencing within the text of the essay only use the surnames and date. The author’s first name initials only appear in the full reference at the end of the essay

For example in the text of the essay you would write:

As demonstrated by Brown and Jones (2012)

A number of studies have investigated these issues (Patel & Jung 1992; Smith 2010; Aron, Aron & Smollan 2012)

Within your essay text, citations to work with more than three authors should be abbreviated to only the first author followed by et al. (this is Latin for “and others”).

For example in the text of the essay you would write :

As shown in the model by Krishna et al. (2013).

A more recent model (Krishnaet al.2013) highlights the issues involved.



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide

Citing References within your Essay:

In -text citations

•When listing more than one citation in the text these should be listed in chronological order and separated by a semi-colon.

For example in the text of the essay you would write:

As demonstrated by a number of other studies (Zimmerman et al. 1986; Able et al. 1997; Smith 2010)

•Work with the same first author and date should be coded by letters, e.g. Thompson et al.2011a,b.



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide

Formatting for the Reference List Journal article:

• Author last name, Author initials. (Year of Publication) Article title. Journal Name, volume number, start page-end page.

For example:

Boutin, C. & Harper, J.L. (1991) A comparative study of the population dynamics of five species of Veronica in natural habitats. Journal of Ecology, 79, 199-221.


•Author last name, Author initials. (Year of Publication) Book Title, Edition edn., Publisher, Place of Publication.

For example:

Pimm, S.L. (1982) Food Webs. Chapman and Hall, London.



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide

Edited Book:

Editor last name, Editor initials. (Year of Publication) Book Title, Edition edn., Publisher, Place of Publication. For example:

Dame, R.F. (2012). Ecology of marine bivalves: an ecosystem approach , 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, London.

Book chapter or section:

Author last name, Author initials. (Year of Publication) Chapter title. Book Title, (eds Editor initials Editor last name), pp. start page-end page. Edition edn., Publisher, Place of Publication.

For example:

Sibly, R.M. (1981) Strategies of digestion and defecation. Physiological Ecology (eds C. R. Townsend & P. Calow), pp. 109-139. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide

More than 6 authors:

If a publication has more than 6 authors, then, within the reference list only write the first 6 author names followed by et al.

For example:

Martellos, S., Attorre, F., De Felici, S., Cesaroni, D., Sbordoni, V., Blasi, C. et al. (2011). Plant sciences and the Italian national biodiversity network. Plant Biosystems, 145, 758-761.



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide

Web page:

As much of the following as possible: Author last name, Author initials. (Year of Publication) Web PageTitle, URL Publisher, Place of Publication.

For example:

R Development Core Team (2008). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.



Biological and Environmental Studies – Referencing Style Guide

Example Reference List that appears at end of the document

Barton, B.H. & Moran, E. (2013). Measuring diversity on the Supreme Court with biodiversity statistics. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 10, 1-34.

Bhattarai, B.P. (2012). Conservation of biodiversity: an outline of the challenge. Himalayan Biodiversity in the Changing World(ed P. Kindlmann), pp. 41-70. Springer, Dordrecht.

Dame, R.F. (2012).Ecology of marine bivalves: an ecosystem approach, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, London.

Drescher, M. & Buse, L.J. (2012). Eliciting expert knowledge of forest succession using an innovative software tool. Expert Knowledge and Its Application in Landscape Ecology(eds A.H. Perera & C.A. Drew), pp. 69-85. Springer,New York, NY.

Krishna, V.V., Drucker, A.G., Pascual, U., Raghu, P.T. & King, E.D.I.O. (2013). Estimating compensation payments for on-farm conservation of agricultural biodiversity in developing countries. Ecological Economics, 87, 110-123.



ASA Format

The American Sociological Association (ASA) Style is intended for use by authors preparing manuscripts for publication in ASA journals. This handout is intended for students who are instructed to use ASA style when writing research papers.



ASA Format

Manuscript Format

All text (including footnotes & references) must be doubled spaced and in a 12 point, standard font such as Times New Roman.

Margins must be at least 1¼ inches on all four sides.

Attach a separate title page including title of paper, name(s) & institution(s) of authors, a running header, word count for the manuscript (including footnotes and references), and title footnote (includes names, addresses of authors, acknowledgements, credits, and grants).

If required, on a separate page provide a short (150-200 word) abstract headed with the title.

Begin the text of the paper on a separate page headed with the title of the paper.



ASA Format

  • Citations in Text
  • If author’s name is in the text, follow it with the publication year in parentheses: When Chu (1977) studied…
  • If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses: When the study was completed… (Jones 1994).
  • If the page number is to be included, it follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number: …as reported by Chavez (1966:16).
  • For three authors, give all last names in the first citation in the text. Afterwards use the first name and “et al.” For more than three names, use the first author’s last name plus “et al.” Examples as follow:
  • Three authors, first in-text citation = (Smith, Garcia and Lee 1954)
  • Three authors, later in-text citations = (Smith et al. 1954)
  • More than three authors = (Snow et al. 1999)
  • 5. Quotations in the text must begin and end with quotation marks. The citation follows the end-quote mark and precedes the period, as follows:
  • “In the late 1990s, data showed that technologically oriented jobs were higher paying” (Hildenbrand 1999:47).



ASA Format

Reference List

References follow the text and endnotes in a separate section headed "References."

All references cited in the text must be listed and vice-versa.

Remember: Like all other parts of the manuscript, references should be double-spaced.

List references in alphabetical order by authors’ last names.

Use hanging indention (see examples below).

Invert the author’s name (type the last name first). If there are two or more authors, invert only the first author’s name.

Arrange multiple items by the same author in order by year of publication, earliest year first.

Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by adding letters (e.g. 1993a, 1993b, 1993c).

Use italics for book and periodical titles (underline if italics are not available).

If no date is available use "N.d." in place of the date.

Include the state abbreviation only if the city of publication is not well known (i.e. New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles do not need a state abbreviation). For foreign cities provide the name of the country.



ASA Format


The basic form for a book entry includes…

1. Author’s last name, followed by a comma and author’s first name and middle initial, ending with a period.

2. Year of publication followed by a period.

3. Title of book italicized ending with a period. Follow with edition number if 2nd ed. or later.

4. City of publication (with state abbreviation if it’s not a well-known city), followed by a colon and name of publisher, ending with a period.

Book with One Author

Bergesen, Albert. 2006. The Depth of Shallow Culture: The High Art of Shoes, Movies, Novels, Monsters, and Toys. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

Book with Two Authors

Mouer, Ross and HirosukeKawanishi. 2005. A Sociology of Work in Japan. New York: Cambridge University Press.



ASA Format

Chapter in Book

Holley, Phillip D. and David E. Wright, Jr. 2006. "A Sociology of Rib Joints." Pp. 46-53 in McDonaldization: The Reader, edited by G. Ritzer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Book with No Author (List books alphabetically by the first significant word in the title.)

Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 2005. 11th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.



ASA Format

Journal Articles

The basic form for a journal article includes…

Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial ending with a period.

Year of publication followed by a period.

Title of article in “quotations,” ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark.

Title of journal in italics, no period following.

Volume number followed by issue number in parentheses, followed by a colon, page number(s) and period.

For articles found online, including from a commercial database:

· If the article has a DOI (Digital Object Identifer), add it at the end of the citation: doi:10.0011/0000000X0001100101.

· If the article does not have a DOI, add the date of retrieval and the URL of the site at which you located the article in parentheses, followed by a period: Retrieved [date of retrieval] (



ASA Format

Print Journal Article with One Author

Garcia, Alma M. 1998. "An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicana/Chicano Studies Moving Into the Twenty-first Century." Journal of American Ethnic History 18(1):109.

Print Journal Article with Two or More Authors

Exum, William H., Robert J. Menges, Bari Watkins, and Patricia Berglund. 1984. "Making It at the Top: Women and Minority Faculty in the Academic Labor Market." American Behavioral Scientist 27(3):301-324.

Journal Article from a Commercial Database

Brunson, Rod K. and Jody Miller. 2006. “Gender, Race, and Urban Policing: The Experience of African American Youths.” Gender & Society 20(4):531-552. Retrieved October 26, 2010 (



ASA Format

Newspaper & Magazine Articles

The basic form for a newspaper or magazine entry includes…

Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial, ending with a period.

Year of publication followed by a period.

Title of article in “quotations,” ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark.

Name of newspaper/magazine in italics, followed by a comma.

Month and date of publication followed by a comma.

Page number of article within the publication, designated by “pp.” and ending with a period.

For articles found online, add the date of retrieval and the URL of the site at which you located the article in parentheses, followed by a period: Retrieved [date of retrieval] (



ASA Format

Print Magazine Article

Jana, Reena. 2000. "Preventing Culture Clashes - As the IT Workforce Grows More Diverse, Managers Must Improve Awareness Without Creating Inconsistency." InfoWorld, April 24, pp. 95.

Newspaper Article from a Commercial Database

Harris, Gardiner. 2007. "Teenage Birth Rate Rises For First Time Since ' 91." New York Times, December 6, pp. 26. Retrieved August 28, 2010 (



ASA Format

Electronic Resources

Journal Article from a Commercial Database [Article has DOI]

Sweeten, Gary, Shawn D. Bushway, and Raymond Paternoster. 2009. “Does Dropping Out of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?” Criminology 47(1):47-91. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00139.x.

Journal Article from a Commercial Database [Article does not have DOI]

Menon, Nivedita. 2009. “Sexuality, Caste, Governmentality: Contests Over ' Gender' in India” Feminist Review 91:94-112. Retrieved November 2, 2010 (



ASA Format

Information Posted on a Web Site

Spalter-Roth, Roberta and William Erskine. 2007. “Race and Ethnicity in the Sociology Pipeline.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved January 9, 2008 (

Web-Based Journal Article

Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key to Understanding Japanese Culture?" Electronic Journal of Sociology 5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2009 (

Web Version of Newspaper

Blank, Rebecca M. 2008. “How We Measure Poverty.” Los Angeles Times, September 15. Retrieved January 7, 2009 ( commentary/la-oe-blank15-2008sep15,0,7811609.story).



ASA Format

Government Documents

U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2009. “Offenders” Hate Crime Statistics, 2008. Washington, DC: Criminal Justice Information Services Division Retrieved September 14, 2010 (

Dissertations & Theses

Valencia, Albert. 1995. "An Examination of Selected Characteristics of Mexican-American Battered Women and Implications for Service Providers." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, University of the Pacific. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database, 741159811.