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Organic Nomenclature Alkanes. SWBAT: Name alkanes with alkyl groups. Organic Chemistry. The study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (synthesis) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Organic Molecules.

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Organic Nomenclature Alkanes


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    1. Organic NomenclatureAlkanes SWBAT: Name alkanes with alkyl groups

    2. Organic Chemistry • The study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (synthesis) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons and their derivatives

    3. Organic Molecules • Organic molecules are compounds consisting of nonmetals (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens, phosphorus, silicon and sulfur) with carbon • Due to carbon’s hybrid bonding orbitals, organic molecules have a variety of configurations • The types of atoms bonded to the carbon atoms will ultimately determine function and properties of the compound

    4. Organic vs. InorganicGeneral Comparison Organic Compounds Inorganic Compounds Many ionic, some covalent High boiling pt High melting pt Low flammability Most are ionic or polar covalent Most are soluble in water unless nonpolar Conduct electricity • Mostly covalent bonding • Low boiling pt • Low melting pt • High flammability • Most are nonpolar • Not soluble in water unless a polar group is present • Do not conduct electricity

    5. Hydrocarbons • A hydrocarbon chain is a series of carbons bonded together with numerous hydrogen's attached • Includes Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Cyclical HC • Use certain prefixes for naming to indicate chain length

    6. Alkane Formulas and Names • Strings, branches of carbons with single bonds between C • Essentially many CH4 reacted together • Formula rules: CnHn+2 • CH2 – methylene unit • Names: Prefixes indicate # of C followed by -ane

    7. Homologous series of the first 12 linear alkanes • Methane (meth=1) CH4 • Ethane (eth =2) C2H6 • Propane (prop=3) C3H8 • Butane (but=4) C4H10 • Pentane (pent=5) C5H12 • Hexane (hex=6) C6H14 • Heptane (hept=7) C7H16 • Octane (oct=8) C8H18 • Nonane (non=9) C9H20 • Decane (dec=10) C10H22 • Undecane (undec = 11) C11H24 • Dodecane (dodec= 12) C12H26

    8. 1-10 Alkane Prefix QuizJust the prefix…not the -ane • CH4 • C2H6 • C3H8 • C4H10 • C5H12 • C6H14 • C7H16 • C8H18 • C9H20 • C10H22

    9. Mnemonic for First 8 Prefixes • Mrs. Edwards Plays Basketball, Please Hold Her Overcoat • Methane CH4 • Ethane C2H6 • Propane C3H8 • Butane C4H10 • Pentane C5H12 • Hexane C6H14 • Heptane C7H16 • Octane C8H18

    10. Alkane Naming and Drawing • Expanded structure 1. Make string of carbons (prefix= # of C) Ex: Butane (but=4)

    11. Butane 2. Condensed structure A CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 3. Condensed structure B CH3CH2CH2CH3 4. Condensed structure C CH3(CH2)2CH3

    12. Butane 5. Carbon skeleton: C-C-C-C *all H are understood 6. Kekulé or Line-angle formula (most reduced form) • Each endpoint, every corner symbolizes a C • H are understood

    13. Alkanes

    14. Alkyl Groups • Substituent – element or group of elements that branch off parent chain (replace a H) • methyl group • ethyl group • propyl group

    15. Alkyl Groups • isopropyl • butyl groups • butyl • secbutyl • tertbutyl • isobutyl Only iso- is alphabetized, tert, sec are not.

    16. Haloalkanes • Haloalkanes have a halogen that has replaced a hydrogen • The halogens are substituent groups treated the same as the alkyl groups. Alpha without prefixes F = fluoro Cl= chloro Br = bromo I = iodo

    17. Rules to Naming Hydrocarbon Chains • Number the longest continuous chain of carbons • Carbons attached to double/triple bonds receive the smallest number possible • If no double/triple bonds are present, carbons with groups attached, receive the smallest number possible • Use prefixes for repeating groups di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, …. • Alphabetize groups without prefixes • All lowercase, commas between numbers, dashes between numbers and words • Use appropriate ending • ane, ene, yne or functional group ending

    18. Find The Longest Continuous Chain of Carbons

    19. Number the Carbons so that the groups receive the smallest number possible

    20. Use prefixes with same multiple substituent groups 7 – ethyl – 3,5 - dimethyl – 6 - tertbutylundecane

    21. Naming Hydrocarbon Chains

    22. Naming Hydrocarbon Chains

    23. Naming Hydrocarbon Chains

    24. If more than one type of substituent group, alpha. the groups without prefixes 5 – secbutyl - 3,6 – dimethylnonane 4 – tertbutyl - 5 - ethylnonane

    25. Cycloalkanes1. Start at noon and go clockwise until you get to first carbon with a substituent group this is # 12. Go clockwise or counterclockwise so substituent groups receive the smallest number possible

    26. Cyclical Alkaneshave 2 H less from ring closure

    27. Alkanes • cyclodecane C10H20 • cycloundecane C11H22 • cyclododecane C12H24

    28. Practice • methylcyclopentane • 1,1-dimethylcyclopentane

    29. Practice • 1,2-dimethylcyclopentane • 1,3-dimethylcyclopentane

    30. Practice • 2-ethyl,1-methylcyclohexane

    31. Practice • 2-cyclopropyl-4-ethyl-1-methylcyclohexane