Biotechnology Quiz 2 Review. Discuss the nature of science, scientific inquiry and problem solving Analyze cellular design and function in plant, animal and bacterial cells Explore the structure of DNA and its relationship to the cell Evaluate forensic techniques . What is Science?.
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Biotechnology Quiz 2 Review • Discuss the nature of science, scientific inquiry and problem solving • Analyze cellular design and function in plant, animal and bacterial cells • Explore the structure of DNA and its relationship to the cell • Evaluate forensic techniques
What is Science? Science is basically predictability • It is using what we know today to give us the ability to predict certain things about the world around us
How does a Scientist Think? Scientists use Critical Thinking • Be Curious – look around and ask questions about things • Be Skeptical – don’t always believe the first thing you hear • Be Flexible – even after you have found one explanation, keep looking, you may find an even better one later
How do a Scientist Act? Scientists use the Scientific Method • Observation–carefully watching something around us • Hypothesis – an educated guess explaining what you are observing • Experiment – testing your hypothesis by designing and carrying out an experiment • Conclusion – judging on the basis of your experiment if your hypothesis is right or wrong
Two Groups in Experiment • Experimental – the group in the experiment that is tested • Control – the group in the experiment that stays the same
Two Groups in Conclusion • Correlation – two things happen together • Cause Effect - one thing or event actually causes the other to happen
Cell Theory All living matter is made up of one or more cells. Also, any cell alive today had its origin in a preexisting cell
Differences between Animal and Plant Cells • Plant cells have cell walls • Plant cells have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll • Plant cells have larger vacuoles than Animal cells • Animal cells contain centrioles • Many animal cells have flagellum to help with movement
Bacterial Cells • Bacteria are prokaryotes, they do not have a well-defined nucleus • Bacteria cells contain a single closed DNA circle • Need a microscope to see them • Bacteria come in three shapes • Cocci (round) • Bacilli (rod-shaped) • Spirilla (spiral-shaped)
Genetics and DNA • A gene is a unit of information that can be passed on to offspring • They are a powerful influence on physical and mental characteristics • As powerful as genes are, however, it’s important to remember that environment also helps shape organisms
Genetics and DNA • Genes are usually either dominant or recessive • A dominant gene is expressed in the offspring no matter what gene the other parent contributes • A recessive gene is expressed in the offspring only if both parents contribute recessive genes
What is a Genome? • A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA • Except for mature red blood cells, all human cells contain a complete genome
Genome Science • DNA contains a phosphate group that attaches to base pairs • The four base pairs of DNA are: • Adenine (A) • Thymine (T) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C) • Remember A only attaches to T and G only attaches to C!!!
What is Forensic Science? • Forensic comes from the Latin word forensis. • Forensic science is science used in public, in court or in the justice system. Any science, used for the purposes of the law, is a forensic science.
Forensic Science Techniques • Firearms and tool marks • Forensic profiling • Document examination • Autopsy • DNA typing • Forensic Anthropology • Odontology • Blood