Most common ocular conditions
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Most Common Ocular Conditions. Conditions That Often Accompany Other Visual Exceptionalities. Glaucoma. Glaucoma results from high intraocular pressure. This causes progressive damage to the optic nerve at the optic nerve disc. Glaucoma (cont).

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Most common ocular conditions

Most Common Ocular Conditions

Conditions That Often Accompany

Other Visual Exceptionalities


Glaucoma
Glaucoma

Glaucoma results from high intraocular pressure.

This causes progressive damage to the optic nerve at the optic nerve disc.


Glaucoma cont
Glaucoma (cont)

Pressures above 21 mmHg (a unit of pressure equal to the pressure that can support a column of mercury 1 millimeter high) put people at high risk

1 out of every 25 cases of glaucoma results in blindness.

Over 3 million Americans are affected.

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the United States.



Two types of glaucoma
Two Types of Glaucoma

  • Open Angle

    • Tends to progress slowly over time.

    • The person may not know that they have the condition.

    • Sometimes called the “silent thief.”

    • Peripheral field will be lost slowly and gradually.

    • People will begin to notice bumping into objects more or having more “fender benders” with their cars.


Two types of glaucoma1
Two types of Glaucoma

  • Closed Angle

    • Closed angle glaucoma can appear suddenly and is often painful; visual loss can progress quickly but the discomfort often leads patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs.

    • Accounts for less that 10% of all glaucoma in the US but almost 50% of all glaucoma around the world.

    • African-Americans are three times as likely to have glaucoma.


Signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms

sudden ocular pain,

seeing halos around lights,

red eye,

very high intraocular pressure (>30 mmHg),

nausea and vomiting,

sudden decreased vision, and

a fixed, mid-dilated pupil.


Acute angle closure glaucoma of the right eye. Note the mid sized pupil, which was non-reactive to light, and infection of the conjunctiva.

Wikepedia


In open angle
In Open Angle sized pupil, which was non-reactive to light, and infection of the conjunctiva.

The Canal of Schlemm is not allowing the amount of aqueous fluid to drain that is necessary.

Usually treated with medications or laser surgery.


Causes
Causes sized pupil, which was non-reactive to light, and infection of the conjunctiva.

Often associated with other causes of visual impairment such as diabetic retinopathy.

Age (the cornea of older persons is thinner and more susceptible to pressure.)


May be some very tenuous link between hypertension and glaucoma.

Some rare congenital exceptionalities are associated with glaucoma.

No indication that it is caused by vitamin defiency


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