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Dr. Robert B. Cialdini , President of Influence at Work ( IAW), and Arizona State University Regents’ Professor Emer PowerPoint Presentation
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Dr. Robert B. Cialdini , President of Influence at Work ( IAW), and Arizona State University Regents’ Professor Emer

Dr. Robert B. Cialdini , President of Influence at Work ( IAW), and Arizona State University Regents’ Professor Emer

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Dr. Robert B. Cialdini , President of Influence at Work ( IAW), and Arizona State University Regents’ Professor Emer

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  1. Dr. Robert B. Cialdini, President of Influence at Work (IAW), and Arizona State University Regents’ Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Marketing Video

  2. Social Influence Compliance/Persuasion (Cialdini & Griskevicius(2010) Type of research used: • Non-experimental • Systematic, naturalistic observation (e.g., professionals in advertising, sales, negotiators) • Quasi-experimental designs (e.g., field experiments)

  3. Six Universal Influence Principles Reciprocity– the need to return a favor, gift, or service Consistency – with a prior commitment Social Validation (Consensus) – the behavior/opinions of similar others 4) Liking– the impact of those who express liking for “targets” Authority– the role of legitimate authority figures, expertise 6) Scarcity– the value/desire for things that are rare, less available

  4. ~ Reciprocity ~ Premise: People ought to comply with a request from others who have earlier provided a favor or some type of concession Evolutionary Value: Goal directed, adaptive for survival, promotes affiliation Seen across cultures, species

  5. Reciprocity Research Findings • Restaurant servers: Give 2 candies to customers = 14.1% increase in tips • DAV: Survey with gift included (address labels) = 35% rise in donations vs. 18% control • Hand written Post-it note with survey = 2x more likely to respond; returned survey quicker and gave more information on survey • Check with questionnaire (Rand Corp. doctor sample) – • 78% response vs. 66% (if check promised later) • 95% of doctors who complied cashed checks, but 26% who did not comply did so! • Reusetowels (Hotels): Money already given to charity = 26% reuse • Concessions: Blood donation example – Long-term plan (No); then ... how about once • Door-in-the Face and That’s Not All Techniques discussed next class

  6. ~ Social Validation (Consensus) ~ Premise: People are more likely to comply if the behavior asked for is congruent with what others are doing or thinking • Festinger’s Social Comparison Theory (1954) • Need to evaluate ourselves (e.g., abilities, opinions, feelings) • Objective cues preferred when available • If no objective cues are present – look for social comparison information (others) • Similar others primarily used for social comparison

  7. Social Comparison Examples Application of the “list technique” Reuse towels in hotels: Note that states the majority of customers reuse towels at least once = increase in compliance by 28%

  8. ~ Consistency/Commitment ~ Premise: After committing to a position, people will be willing to comply with requests that are consistent with their prior commitment Affects one’s self perception/concept; One reason underlying mailing lists, web browsing data (identify types of people who are likely to respond well given their previous behaviors) Foot-in-the-Door Technique discussed next class Asked to wear charity pin – later asked to donate – more likely to do so (Piner et al. 1974) Call registered voters and ask if they’re going to vote; if “yes” = more likely to vote Bait and Switch Technique – go to store to buy a certain advertised product; product is of low quality or “sold out” = still willing to buy something (an alternative) Low Ball Technique - Get a commitment at a given price (low); item then costs more that that agreed upon (car sales example) = more likely to still buy item • Low Ball Technique is most effective when: • Employed by a single requester • Public commitment obtained • Commitment is freely made

  9. ~ Consistency/Commitment ~ Labeling Technique – Making people aware of their existing commitments House insurance example (Bought expensive house = must buy expensive insurance) Legitimization of Paltry Favors approach -- Charity donation (Just a penny would help; just 25 cents/day) Assuming you consider yourself as a helpful person = hard to not give anything. Usually, the amount given is equal to the average donation not just a miniscule sum How Are You Feeling Technique: Answer (Fine, okay ...); = More difficult to deny others some money/time when you just admitted how well you are doing (will appear cheap) Phone call to have cookie salesperson come to house to raise $ for Hunger Relief Committee (Howard, 1990) Control: 18% versus 32% who were asked how they felt that evening. 89% who agree to the visit bought cookies!

  10. ~ Liking~ Premise: People are more willing to comply with requests by friends or liked others Tupperware party example: Use of both friends and “love bombing” • Other Factors: • Physical Attractiveness • Similarity (Mirror-and-match behavioral approach; dressed alike) • Compliments (e.g., praise, even if not accurate) • Cooperation (us against them) Also -- Role of Positive Mood (e.g., pleasant environment, ads with dancing, dogs, laughing ...)

  11. Scarcity (Perceived or Real) Premise: People desire to secure opportunities for things that are scarce or dwindling Why Effective? Rare = perception of value/worth Psychological Reactance Theory (personal freedom is threatened; need to gain control) Examples: Miami ban on phosphate detergents = perception of better quality and effectiveness of phosphate =based detergents (justifies our desire to buy limited availability items) Information from “exclusive” source = more valued and persuasive

  12. Scarcity (Perceived or Real) Limited number or items left or limited time limit (last item; one time only offer; 30 minutes left) Role of perceived loss: Potential $$ lost due to poor insulation more effective than “here’s how much you could save”

  13. ~ Authority/Expertise ~ Premise: People are more willing to comply with a legitimate authority figure “Babies are our business, our only business” “Sports Authority” CNN: “The Worldwide Leader in News” ESPN – The Total Sports Network (1979–1985) The Number One Sports Network (1985–1991) All Sports, All the Time (1991–1994) America's No. 1 Sports Network (1994–1998) The Worldwide Leader in Sports (1998–present) Role of titles, expert status/experience, attire (e.g., suits)

  14. Use of Fear Appeals to Induce Compliance • Premise: • Lots of fear must be created • Most effective if options/information given to deal with the fear Examples: Drunk driving, Drug Use, Seat Belt Use, Skin Cancer, Condom Use Obstacles? • Oddsof negative outcome (low) • Time frame may be long between behavior and negative outcome • Ability to control behavior (e.g., habit, addiction) – Theory of Planned Behavior • Lack of perceived relevance (ELM Model)