The Book of Revelation Chapters 17-19 September 14, 2016
1-3 4-7 8-11 12-16 17-19 20 21-22 Vision of Jesus and Seven letters to seven churches Throne of God & Scroll with seven seals Seven trumpets Christ, the Dragon & the Seven Bowls The Harlot on Seven Hills & the Bride The King reigns New Heaven & New Earth Each ends with a promise of 2nd Coming Christ wipes away every tear (7:17) Christ will reign forever & ever (11:15) Fall of the nations “It is done” (16:17) Rider on the White Horse (19:16) Judge & Lake of Fire I am coming quickly (22:20)
Revelation 17:1-3 The Great Prostitute and the Beast 1 Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, “Come, I will show you the judgment of the great prostitute who is seated on many waters, 2 with whom the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality, and with the wine of whose sexual immorality the dwellers on earth have become drunk.” 3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness, and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names, and it had seven heads and ten horns.
Revelation 17:4-6 4 The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and jewels and pearls, holding in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of her sexual immorality. 5 And on her forehead was written a name of mystery: “Babylon the great, mother of prostitutes and of earth's abominations.” 6 And I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. When I saw her, I marveled greatly.
Revelation 17:1-6 • This chapter marks the beginning of a new vison – one that will use two women to symbolize two cities: • First is the prostitute – Babylon the great – showing the finest of human technology and achievement apart from God • Second is the pure bride, shows the finest product of divine grace • This vision gives us detail and fills in previous visions – it is not a vision of new or different events • The fact that one of the seven angels from the bowl judgements is now John’s guide shows the close connection of this vision to the previous one • There are many details on which interpreters disagree in this vision – that there is disagreement is not crucial – the important facts won’t be fully clarified until the time actually comes
Revelation 17:1-6 • We will learn more about the prostitute as the vision goes on but it is important to see the two most likely theories of who she represents: • First is the idea she represents corrupt civilization of politics and religion that denies God’s justice and His rule • Second, and closely related, is that she represents the apostate church • In terms of important symbolism – adultery represents religious idolatry and immorality in society and urban centers of the world • The whore Babylon leads the leaders astray morally promising the pleasures of the world and the flesh • The identity of the beast is confirmed in his description – though we were not given a color when it was first described in chapter 13, verse 1, here we see it is red
Revelation 17:1-6 • The beast is the same color of its master – “red” • The identical description matches in the seven heads and ten horns • Earlier it had blasphemous names on its heads, now it has them all over its body • The covering of its body in these names shows its total rejection of God • The prostitute sitting on the beast shows relationship between her and the beast – she has seduced all the people and made them susceptible to the beast, and her growth in power moves through the power of the beast • The clothing of the whore (purple and scarlet) reflect the wealth of her sinful empire – the colors are also reminiscent of the blood shed of the saints by her followers and rule of her on earth • Her clothing is in stark contrast to the white clothing of the saints
Revelation 17:1-6 • The golden cup held by the whore looks beautiful on the outside but is filled with sick and abominable things inside • It parallels forbidden fruit which looks beautiful outside but inside holds the poison of sin and death • Her way of dress shows the riches and ways she has tempted and corrupted her followers • Roman prostitutes traditionally wore their names on a headband • The whore does the same – the name here is a “mystery” – it is a description not necessarily part of the name itself • Babylon links to a city that goes beyond John – a city that will kill the followers of Christ as the original killed the Israelites • “Mother of prostitutes” shows that she is the source of all idolatry and evil • “Mother … of the abominations of the Earth” further confirms the above – all that is sick and evil issues from this whore
Revelation 17:1-6 • Immorality and idolatry of the whore are clear from the beginning; her hatred and murder of God’s people is not specified • She is staggering drunk on their blood – the blood running from her mouth • Blood is mentioned twice which shows and enhances understanding of the horror of her murder of the Saints of God • This parallels what we were told earlier in Chapter 13, verse 7 that the beast “was given power to make war against the saints and to conquer them” • It is important that we don’t get caught up in whether the city, “Babylon the Great” will be an ancient city or a new world city – the physical elements are not available for us to find
Revelation 17:7-10 7But the angel said to me, “Why do you marvel? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast with seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 8The beast that you saw was, and is not, and is about to rise from the bottomless pit and go to destruction. And the dwellers on earth whose names have not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world will marvel to see the beast, because it was and is not and is to come. 9This calls for a mind with wisdom: the seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman is seated; 10they are also seven kings, five of whom have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come, and when he does come he must remain only a little while.
Revelation 17:7-10 • The beast “was, and is not, and is about to” first and foremost shows the false mimicry of the beast to God “who is, and who was, and who is to come.” • Secondly, it refers back to Chapter 13 where we are told “one of the heads of the beast seemed to have had a fatal wound, but the fatal wound had been healed” • The angel interprets the final antichrist or possibly the antichrist’s kingdom as the one who had the “resurrection” • The source of the beast’s power is shown in that he is “about to rise from the bottomless pit” and his ultimate fate is also shown here in that he “go to destruction” • Verses 9 – 11 are as hard to interpret as any others in the Revelation – further reflected by the words “This calls for a mind with wisdom”
Revelation 17:7-10 • First, the “seven heads” of the monster are “seven hills on which the woman sits” • In 1st century terms this would have been thought of as Rome which was famously known to be built on seven hills; BUT this simply links that empire to the final empire to come under the antichrist • Second, the “seven heads” are also seven kings – which is even more puzzling – actually kings or kingdoms? • Many, Many different attempts through the years have been made to identify this (everything from Roman emperors to Roman Catholic Popes) • Symbolically, remember seven is a number of perfection and completion – five kings have come and gone, one is ruling and the antichrist is yet to come – meaning the time is near • It is also very possible that (and in keeping with earlier thought about Rome) that each king is a symbol for a kingdom
Revelation 17:7-10 • In this case, the five fallen kings represent five previous and fallen kingdoms who were opposed to God and have now fallen • A possible list here is: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Seleucid (Greek) • The current empire in this is likely Rome • The one to come could very likely be the Islamic Caliphate that would rise approximately 700 years later • A strong reason for the gap between the kingdoms is that over the past centuries there has not been an empire that has persecuted and attacked Christianity and Judaism to the degree of the earlier six • It is possible to see this any number of ways through history with a variety of kingdoms BUT the one fixable point is that the final one will be the antichrist’s • The one who is yet to come, the antichrist, “must remain only a little while” which is consistent with the beast’s reign being restricted in time to 42 months
Revelation 17:11-14 11 As for the beast that was and is not, it is an eighth but it belongs to the seven, and it goes to destruction. 12 And the ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received royal power, but they are to receive authority as kings for one hour, together with the beast. 13 These are of one mind, and they hand over their power and authority to the beast. 14 They will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful.”
Revelation 17:11-14 • Some crucial things to consider: • The reference to sitting on “seven hills” should be translated as “seven mountains – difference in Greek “bounos” for hills; and “oros” for mountains • The Greek points away from this actually being Rome • The seventh kingdom, the one that is to come, is better clarified when looked at historically and in conjunction with Daniel 7 with Rev 13 • It has three animals representing empires – lion – Babylon; bear – Medo-Persia; and leopard – Greece • If we combine the geographic areas of these empires we see that that it does NOT line up with Rome or a European empire • It covers almost exclusively the Islamic Empire • In this view the 7th and final kingdom, the kingdom of the antichrist will be the Islamic kingdom, the Caliphate
Revelation 17:11-14 • Some crucial things to consider: (Cont.) • From Rev 13 we know the antichrist will appear to suffer a fatal wound • The seventh empire will seem to end with this as the ruler or figure head seems to die • OR this could simply address the empire itself – seemingly killed and revived by the antichrist • This resurrection will amaze the world and deceive all who will be drawn to the rebirth of the seventh empire into the eighth empire – a fully revived version of the Islamic Caliphate • This can be seen as possibly the resurrection of the ancient Caliphate that the Moslem world has sought for centuries; the resurrection of a destroyed ISIS Caliphate that may be destroyed in the near future • In this view, the seven/eight empires are likely: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome, Islamic Caliphate, Revived Islamic Caliphate
Revelation 17:11-14 • When the seventh/eighth and final kingdom comes, its leader will be a seventh/eighth king – the final personal antichrist • BUT, the beast is shown with only seven heads, this poses a question that has several possibilities: • The “resurrected” antichrist will gain his full evil powers so one head may be both the man and the “resurrected” version of him • This could speak to a resurrected empire which has previously died out and is miraculously revived • We simply don’t know for sure the mystery of these verses • Again, though, whoever he is and how this works we are told reassuringly that he “goes to destruction” • The ten-horned beast is tied to the fourth beast in Daniel 7:7-24, this means that the antichrist will have support from ten kings who have not taken power or received a kingdom
Revelation 17:11-14 • The antichrist is supported by ten kings who haven’t yet received their kingdom • These are likely equivalent to the “kings of the whole world” from chapter 16 verse 14 • It has proven impossible to say who these kings will definitively be – one of the prevailing ideas among many experts is that they will be from ten European countries in a revived Roman Empire • This theory goes well beyond the text and is not supported – it really is more supposition than anything approaching fact • This could also be kings who make up countries that fall into the new Islamic Caliphate • This military coalition is going to be short-lived, “for one hour only” which likely coincides with the final 42 months of the antichrist’s rule • The hatred of the beast and the kings for King Jesus brings them together and leads the kings to give their power to the antichrist to oppose the Lord
Revelation 17:11-14 • Verse 14 focuses on the very end of the beast’s reign and further fills in and develops chapter 16, verse 14 when the beast gathers the “the kings of the whole world … for the battle of the great day of God Almighty.” • The seven bowl plagues are still on-going as the armies are gathered • The greatest news is that in spite of all the antichrist pulls together he is going to be beat and the “Lamb will conquer them” • This is the realization of the grape harvest as Christ overcomes and destroys His enemies
Revelation 17:15-18 15 And the angel said to me, “The waters that you saw, where the prostitute is seated, are peoples and multitudes and nations and languages. 16 And the ten horns that you saw, they and the beast will hate the prostitute. They will make her desolate and naked, and devour her flesh and burn her up with fire, 17 for God has put it into their hearts to carry out his purpose by being of one mind and handing over their royal power to the beast, until the words of God are fulfilled. 18 And the woman that you saw is the great city that has dominion over the kings of the earth.”
Revelation 17:15-18 • The angel shifts focus from explaining the beast to interpreting the whore • Her sitting on the waters represents the peoples, nations and languages of the world • It is a surprise to see that the beast and his people not only hated Jesus but also hated the prostitute • This reflects the fact from history that evil will turn on itself and carry the seeds of its own defeat • Russian communism and the Nazi Third Reich are examples of this • A strong possibility is that the antichrist sees the prostitute as a competitor – he wants to be worshipped alone – not share with the false religion that he has used • His alliance exists only as long as it benefits him • When he demands only his worship he will do away with the other competing false religion
Revelation 17:15-18 • In Caliphate terms this also points to the tenets of Islam – the seeming puritanism which covers the depth of spiritual and moral decadence that is endemic in the belief system • There exists a deep element of self-loathing in Islam and this is a strong instrument in Islamic control – it is an element of this horrible spiritual disease • It is also hugely important to see that, though the antichrist destroys the prostitute, this is the sovereignty of God playing out • Even the actions of the antichrist must give to the will of God and His purpose • God uses evil to destroy evil and God is glorified
Revelation 17:15-18 • These actions should be seen as simultaneous with the seventh bowl judgement as it is enacted, but it really isn’t important if it is sequential or all at the same time • Most importantly they bring her ruin and leave her destroyed • Then they eat her flesh (as queen Jezebel of Samaria was devoured by dogs) • Then she is burned with fire – proper destruction for a city, also a punishment for certain whores in the Old Testament and purification of pagan and false religion and worship • The hatred of the elements that helped bring the antichrist to power and to sustain him and his empire will finally bring about its destruction • It is possible, in the view of Islam and the Caliphate, that the whore – the apostate religion represents a mutation like “Chrislam” or universalism that enables the empire’s and antichrist’s growth in power
Revelation 17:15-18 • God has a law in creation of reaping what you sow and that is how the end times drama plays out • God’s Will must be fulfilled and He is in control regardless of how it looks at times • The angel’s final explanation shows that the woman is represented as a great city that rules the kings of the earth • In the times of the 6th head, it was Rome and could be the pagan religion of Rome when it was oppressing Judaism and Christianity • In the time of the 7th a new city and false religion will take that place as the antichrist’s capital and supporting beliefs • The whore could very well represent a combination of the apostate church and the physical city of the kingdom of the beast
Revelation 18:1-2 The Fall of Babylon 1 After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven, having great authority, and the earth was made bright with his glory. 2 And he called out with a mighty voice, “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! She has become a dwelling place for demons, a haunt for every unclean spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird, a haunt for every unclean and detestable beast.
Revelation 18:3-5 3 For all nations have drunk the wine of the passion of her sexual immorality, and the kings of the earth have committed immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth have grown rich from the power of her luxurious living.” 4 Then I heard another voice from heaven saying, “Come out of her, my people, lest you take part in her sins, lest you share in her plagues; 5 for her sins are heaped high as heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities.
Revelation 18:1-5 • We have spent much time discussing what Babylon represents – false religious system; political system and physical location • One way to look at the description of its destruction is this: • Chapter 14 – describes the false religious system • Chapter 16 – addresses the earthly political and physical location • Chapter 17 – describes the fall of the false world church • Chapter 18 – describes the fall of the demonic political, economic system and physical capital • Religious Babylon was called “mystery Babylon” • Political and economic, commercial Babylon was called “Babylon the great”
Revelation 18:1-5 • Religious Babylon is presented as a prostitute who sat on the seven mountains and was over all the peoples represented by the seas • Commercial Babylon is shown as a city seen from the sea • Religious Babylon is destroyed by the beast and by the kings of the earth • Political Babylon will be destroyed by the horrendous judgements from the Hand of God • When religious Babylon was destroyed the kings and beast rejoiced • When political and commercial Babylon is destroyed the kings and merchants lament and weep for her
Revelation 18:1-5 • Chapter 18 continues the vision from 17 focusing on the fall of Babylon • The emphasis is different here – it is mainly on what John heard instead of what he saw • The entire chapter records what three different speakers tell John and us of the fall • Revelation 17 had paralleled Old Testament prophesy, especially Daniel; Revelation 18 is different as it is more of a dirge / funeral song (Isaiah 13-14; Jeremiah 50-51; Ezekiel 26-28) • Babylon is the capital in a physical sense and as the false religion sense – she represents both political, religious, worldly, materialistic culture • Remember, the identification of the actual city is less important than to see that it represents something MUCH bigger than a physical location it is a complete worldly system that has gained power and given power to/by the antichrist
Revelation 18:1-5 • A new angel now comes to guide John and us in the destruction of Babylon • Chapter 18 begins with restating the original proclamation of Ch. 14:8, “Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great!” which is originally from Isaiah 21:9 • Verse 3 gives us the reasons that Babylon must be destroyed: • She has led astray the world and brought all manner of detestable, sinful, and false practices to tempt the people of Earth • The particular groups named are: “the kings of the earth” – earth’s leaders who have given over and follow the antichrist and “the merchants of the earth” – those who literally “grew rich from the power of her luxuries” • This speaks of the total moral corruption of leadership and the absolute obsession on materialism, comfort and sensual gratification – the satisfaction of the world’s basest desires
Revelation 18:1-5 • The first angel is now replaced by a second speaker one that could be an angel speaking from heaven or by Jesus Christ Himself • This speaker makes a surprising call – He calls for His people to leave Babylon before her destruction • This is consistent with God’s attempts to save His people in the Old Testament and represents another, final, call for people to turn from evil and come to their loving creator • At this point this doesn’t appear to have any affect – either way we don’t have any information about the result • This call also has a resonating effect that reaches far before this actual time of destruction – Jesus is calling ALL His people to come out of the culture of sin, out of false religion, out of all things that come together as the whore of Babylon
Revelation 18:1-5 • This is a key message – God’s people in every generation must be careful NOT to compromise with secular civilization • Paul tells us in 2 Corinthians 6:14, “Do not be yoked together with unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common? Or what fellowship can light have with darkness?” • The moral is that believers who are snared and compromise with “Babylon” will share in her sins • In the present age we must balance our commitment to Christ and refusal to give in to the secular world with our mission to reach out and engage those to be instruments of God’s Will • It is important to note that ONLY those who refuse to identify with Babylon will NOT receive any of her plagues
Revelation 18:6-8 6 Pay her back as she herself has paid back others, and repay her double for her deeds; mix a double portion for her in the cup she mixed. 7 As she glorified herself and lived in luxury, so give her a like measure of torment and mourning, since in her heart she says, ‘I sit as a queen, I am no widow, and mourning I shall never see.’ 8 For this reason her plagues will come in a single day, death and mourning and famine, and she will be burned up with fire; for mighty is the Lord God who has judged her.”
Revelation 18:6-8 • Now the voice from heaven tells His unseen agents to act, to destroy final Babylon • Pay her back as she has done to others – in keeping with the Old Testament law of justice, “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” • Babylon will receive ALL of what she deserves – this is reinforced by the command to “repay her double for her deeds” • Human beings are NOT committing this – this is done by heavenly beings under God’s command • The pride of Babylon and the evil of that are shown in verse 7 • Even the ancient Greeks saw pride as the greatest sin “hybris” (we get hubris from this) • Babylon’s three statements relate to this: “I sit as queen…” “I am no widow…” “mourning I shall never see…”
Revelation 18:6-8 • Babylon’s pride links to old Babylon’s pride in Isaiah 47:7-9where she claims to “continue forever – the eternal queen!” “I will never be a widow or suffer the loss of children.” • There is a definitive tie to Proverbs 16:18, “Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall” • In human terms, the people of the antichrist’s empire will pride fully believe their empire invincible • Here in these verses is the first of four times in this chapter that the phrases “one day” or “one hour” shows the speed by which Babylon’s destruction will come
Revelation 18:9-11 9And the kings of the earth, who committed sexual immorality and lived in luxury with her, will weep and wail over her when they see the smoke of her burning. 10They will stand far off, in fear of her torment, and say, “Alas! Alas! You great city, you mighty city, Babylon! For in a single hour your judgment has come.” 11And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn for her, since no one buys their cargo anymore,
Revelation 18:12-13 12cargo of gold, silver, jewels, pearls, fine linen, purple cloth, silk, scarlet cloth, all kinds of scented wood, all kinds of articles of ivory, all kinds of articles of costly wood, bronze, iron and marble, 13cinnamon, spice, incense, myrrh, frankincense, wine, oil, fine flour, wheat, cattle and sheep, horses and chariots, and slaves, that is, human souls.
Revelation 18:9-13 • Note that those who mourn are those of the earth – we will see those who celebrate are those of heaven • The first mourners noted are the “kings of the earth” who certainly had joined the false religion and reveled in the worldly, materialism and sensualism of those days • These are likely NOT the “ten kings” who received power to help the antichrist and who help destroy Babylon • The translated words “Alas! Alas!” can be translated from Greek “ovai” as “Woe! Woe!” or as “Horror! Horror!” • This links back to the eagles call in 8:13 regarding the trumpet judgements. This serves as a connection between the individual judgements and the complete effect of destruction upon Babylon • The kings of the earth are horrified and shocked that such total destruction could be done to Babylon to whom they have given themselves – that the thing with such power over them is shown with no power before God
Revelation 18:9-13 • They are not so much grieved for Babylon as they are terrified for themselves and for the losses they are and will take • Adding and contributing to this reaction is the extreme speed with which this destruction comes – “For in a single hour your judgement has come!” • The final outpouring of God’s wrath is so sudden and so complete they cannot comprehend it • The merchants, with the extensive listing of their cargoes, show the same basic motivation for their horror and sadness – selfishness • The listing of goods characterizes imports to the city of Rome in the first century – John’s readers would have recognized this and seen the illustration of the extreme worldly and extreme pagan selfishness that this exemplify in opposition to God’s way and His Will
Revelation 18:14-16 14 “The fruit for which your soul longed has gone from you, and all your delicacies and your splendors are lost to you, never to be found again!” 15 The merchants of these wares, who gained wealth from her, will stand far off, in fear of her torment, weeping and mourning aloud, 16 “Alas, alas, for the great city that was clothed in fine linen, in purple and scarlet, adorned with gold, with jewels, and with pearls!
Revelation 18:17-20 17 For in a single hour all this wealth has been laid waste.” And all shipmasters and seafaring men, sailors and all whose trade is on the sea, stood far off 18 and cried out as they saw the smoke of her burning, “What city was like the great city?” 19 And they threw dust on their heads as they wept and mourned, crying out, “Alas, alas, for the great city where all who had ships at sea grew rich by her wealth! For in a single hour she has been laid waste. 20 Rejoice over her, O heaven, and you saints and apostles and prophets, for God has given judgment for you against her!”
Revelation 18:14-20 • As we noted earlier, this shows us the utter implosion of the ungodly Babylon, the political, economic and cultural empire • It especially shows here the loss of the luxury enjoyed by those who invest everything in the system • Verse 14 is the center of the lament, the dirge for the loss of the city • This shows the complete and permanent loss of all the luxuries enjoyed and craved by Babylon’s followers • “Never to be recovered” is translated literally as “and they will never find these things any longer” – this loss is irreparable and eternal • The grief of the merchants is NOT for the loss of the city BUT is for their own economic loss, the loss of their wealth and comforts • They are not willing to come close to her but will cowardly stand far off and watch and mourn their own loss
Revelation 18:14-20 • All of those witnessing her destruction know that their time is now over and their own time is short • Throwing dust on one’s head was an intense show of remorse and mourning – They are mourning all their loss and their impending end • Verse 20 can best be seen and interpreted as the final line of the dirge and a mark of recognition by the wicked that they are destroyed • They realize how wrong they were too late and acknowledge the truth that “Rejoice over her, O Heaven, and you saints and apostles and prophets, for God has given judgement for you against her!”
Revelation 18:21-22 21 Then a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and threw it into the sea, saying, “So will Babylon the great city be thrown down with violence, and will be found no more; 22 and the sound of harpists and musicians, of flute players and trumpeters, will be heard in you no more, and a craftsman of any craft will be found in you no more, and the sound of the mill will be heard in you no more,
Revelation 18:23-24 23 and the light of a lamp will shine in you no more, and the voice of bridegroom and bride will be heard in you no more, for your merchants were the great ones of the earth, and all nations were deceived by your sorcery. 24 And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on earth.”
Revelation 18:21-24 • With verse 21 we are introduced to the 3rd speaker in this chapter. • John sees and hears this angel but the angel acts before speaking. • An angel had hurled a burning censer to earth at the beginning of the trumpet judgements • Now an angel hurls a large stone – “a great millstone” which weighed in excess of several hundred pounds – this shows the enormity of the weapon that totally destroys Babylon • This action crucially shows the conclusion of the judgements and the total end of ALL that Babylon has been • Babylon will be thrown down – TOTALLY destroyed – with such great violence that nothing will remain – she will be “found no more” • It is significant that we can find ruins even of ancient Babylon today, past empires have left remnants but not final Babylon – she will be totally blotted out with nothing remaining
Revelation 18:21-24 • This stone can be interpreted as Jesus Himself – as the “This Jesus is the stone that was rejected by you, the builders, which has become the cornerstone. And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.” Acts 4:11-12 • This also corresponds with Daniel 2:34, “As you looked, a stone was cut out by no human hand, and it struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces.” The ten toes represent the 10 nations aligned with the antichrist – also the 10 kings. • This is also explained in Daniel 2:44-45, “And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall the kingdom be left to another people. It shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and it shall stand forever, just as you saw that a stone was cut from a mountain by no human hand, and that it broke I pieces the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold. A great God has made known to the king what shall be after this…”
Revelation 18:21-24 • It is very reasonable that the Lord Jesus is the stone that pulverizes Babylon – especially when we see how thorough is the destruction that Babylon is perfectly destroyed forever • We also get much more detail of what is destroyed and lost in Babylon • All the celebrations and entertainment of the commercial empire is forever silenced • The workmen represent commerce – the total loss of all activity and materialism from the city • There will be no light – no joy or happiness • The angel tells three of the crucial reasons why Babylon is destroyed in verse 24: • Her love of wealth and riches – worship of materialism