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Kingdom Animalia. Characteristics. Some eat plants, some eat animals, and some eat both. Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores Digest their own food Move from place to place to find food, mates, places to live, and to escape enemies. Multi-cellular Eukaryotic 9 major groups ( Phylums )

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  • Some eat plants, some eat animals, and some eat both.
  • Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores
  • Digest their own food
  • Move from place to place to find food, mates, places to live, and to escape enemies.
  • Multi-cellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • 9 major groups (Phylums)
    • Most of these groups are invertebrates
2 major sub groups
2 Major Sub-Groups
  • Invertebrates
  • Vertebrates
  • No backbones
  • Have an outside covering or are supported by the water they live in
  • Contain:
    • Coelentrates (hydra)
    • Sponges
    • Flatworms (tapeworm)
    • Roundworms (hookworms)
    • Segmented worms (earthworm, leeches)
    • Mollusks (clams, oysters)
    • Arthropods (lobsters, insects)
    • Echinoderms (sea stars)
  • Have a backbone
  • Endoskeleton provides support for the body and aids in movement
  • Contains:
    • Jawless fish (lamprey)
    • Cartilaginous fish (sharks)
    • Bony fish (catfish)
    • Amphibians (frog)
    • Reptiles (turtle)
    • Birds
    • Mammals
major groups phylums
Major groups (Phylums)
  • Porifera
  • Cnidaria
  • Platyhelminthes
  • Nematoda
  • Annelida
  • Mollusca
  • Arthropoda
  • Echinodermata
  • Chordata
  • The simplest of the animal groups.
  • Most adult sponges live in slat water, attached to the sea bottom or some other object.
  • A sponge’s body is composed of 2 layers of body cells.
  • These body cells cling to a network of tiny spikes or fibers that surrounds the hollow central cavity of the sponge.
  • Water and wastes leave through a large opening on the top.
  • Simple animals whose bodies are composed of two specialized layers of cells (tissues) separated by a jelly-like substance
  • All live in water and have a hollow sac-like body that has a single opening through which food enters and wastes are expelled.
  • Sometimes these openings are surrounded by tentacles lined with stinging cells.
  • Examples: Hydras, jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals.
  • Flatworms
  • Have a flattened body with one body opening, a digestive system, and a simple nervous system.
  • Examples:
    • Turbellarians are free living flatworms
    • Blood flukes, liver flukes, and tapeworms are parasitic flatworms.
  • Roundworms
  • Named for their rounded body shape.
  • Have a straight digestive tube and two body openings—one for taking in food and another for getting rid of wastes.
  • Most are free-living found in pond water or in moist soils.
  • Some are parasitic on animals or plants.
    • For example, ascaris worms and hookworms live in the intestines of humans and other mammals.
  • Segmented worms
  • Have rounded bodies with 2 body openings divided into a series of segments.
  • Examples: earthworms, leeches, and marine tube worms.
  • Soft-bodied animals with well-developed organ systems.
  • Many mollusks have hard shells made up of calcium to protect their bodies.
    • Examples: clams and oysters
  • Octopuses and squids are also mollusks but they have tentacles, but no external shell.
  • By far the largest group of animals.
  • Characterized by multiple body segments and jointed appendages.
  • Live successfully in water or on land.
  • May have complex lifecycles (multiple phases.)
  • Arthropods have a hardened exoskeleton that protects their well-developed organ systems.
  • An exoskeleton is a hard outer covering for protection.
    • Example arthropods: insects, spiders, crabs, shrimp, lobsters, centipedes, and millipedes.
  • Move by using special structures called tube feet, which resemble suction cups.
  • Known for their ability to regenerate missing parts.
  • This is the ability to grow new body parts in place of missing ones.
    • Example organisms: Sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers.
  • Phylum contains the following groups:
    • Jawless fishes
    • Cartilaginous fishes
    • Bony fishes
    • Amphibians
    • Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Mammals
jawless fishes
Jawless fishes
  • Have jawless mouths adapted for sucking body fluids from other fishes
  • Have elongated snake-like bodies with no appendages.
  • Gills for obtaining oxygen
  • Flexible skeletons of cartilage
  • Like all other fishes they are ectotherms.
    • This means that they have a body temperature that changes according to the temperature of the environment.
  • Example: The Sea Lamprey
cartilaginous fish
Cartilaginous fish
  • Animals such as sharks
  • Generally live in the ocean
  • Have skeletons made of cartilage, 2 fleshy fins, gills, and strong jaws with many rows of teeth for tearing and eating flesh.
  • Stingrays and skates are other members of this group.
bony fishes
Bony fishes
  • The most numerous and varied kind of fishes
  • Have gills and skeletons made of bone
  • Most have a stream-lined body that is tapered at both ends and 2 pairs of fan-like fins
  • Their fins and body shape allow them to move easily through the water
  • Examples: catfish, goldfish, flounder, eels, trout, etc.
  • Name amphibian means “double life”
  • Most amphibians live part of their lives in water and part on land.
  • Most amphibians have 2 pairs of legs as adults.
  • Amphibians lay their eggs in water and are ectotherms
  • Usually have smooth skin that must be kept moist.
  • Most have gills when they are young and lungs as adults.
    • Examples: frogs, toads, and salamanders
  • Many have 2 pairs of strong legs with clawed toes for digging, climbing, and moving on land.
  • Covered by hard plates or scales that prevent water loss by evaporation.
  • Lay eggs that are surrounded by a tough, leathery shell that prevents them from drying out.
  • Breath with lungs and are ectotherms.
    • Examples: turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators.
  • Have light, hollow bones and enlarged lungs as adaptations for flying.
  • Body covering of feathers and a pair of wings
  • Scaly legs and feet with clawed toes
  • Lay eggs covered by a hard shell.
  • Are endotherms
    • This means that they have a body temperature that remains constant despite temperature changes in the environment.
  • Have a very advanced nervous system, which includes a highly developed brain and keen senses.
  • Feed their young with milk from mammary glands
  • Have hair on their bodies and breathe with lungs
  • Endotherms
  • Found on land, in the air, and in water.
  • One small group of mammals lay eggs but all other give birth to live young.
  • Examples: Lion, human, dolphin, bat