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Difficulties in Formalizing. Romanian Syntactic Constructions. Dina & Cornel Vîlcu. "Babes-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca. 1. MAIN GENERAL DIFFICULTIES: passing from intuitive (inner) knowledge to ‘exterior’ programming

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slide1

Difficulties in Formalizing

Romanian Syntactic Constructions

Dina & Cornel Vîlcu

"Babes-Bolyai" University,

Cluj-Napoca

slide2

1.

  • MAIN GENERAL DIFFICULTIES:
  • passing from intuitive (inner) knowledge to ‘exterior’ programming
  • [Human linguistic competence is teleologically oriented, rather than causally determined; a computer’s ‘mind’ has no notion of purpose what-so-ever.]
  • passing from the analogical to the digital
  • [For human consciousness, a grammatical construction which presents a certain degree of deviation from the rules can still be understood and accepted as valid within the communicative exchange; for the computer, this simply represents an error. For humans, the ‘rules’ of languages are only means to an end; for the machine, they are valid in and ‘for’ themselves.]

SOLUTIONS AND PALEATIVES :

- working according to a ‘benefit of doubt’ principle: rather accept a grammatical construction which isnot totally ‘normal’ than ever reject a correct one

- creating a user-friendly programme, one that enters in dialogue with the person - a programme that politely makes assumptions (“you may have mistaken this for that”) rather than stating ‘this is an error’

slide3

2.

TheRoLingva Team– activating since 1994 within different national programs (Orizont, Relansin, Infosoc) – led by project manager, engineer Luciana Peev

[some of this team’smembers, led by engineer Luciana Peev, are also part of our projectsSIASTRO and SINTEGRO]

Formalization of Romanian – things done so far:

- the formalisation of the phonology of Romanian (2004 – 2006)

- syllabification and stressing of words (2001 – 2003)

- TEZAROM - model of morphological analysis (1996 – 2003)

- structural and ethimological morphological analysis

- basis of a spelling checker

- thesaurus

Our current project: aiming for syntactic analysis

slide4

3.

In Romanian language, parts of speach have a very rich inflection.

We will only discuss here the case ofthenoun:

gender:

masculine

feminine

neutre

number:

singular

plural

case:

Nominative

Accusative

Genitive

Dative

[Vocative]

article:

indefinite

definite

[...]

slide5

masculine – definite article

feminine – definite article

masculine – indefinite article

feminine – indefinite article

singular

N-Ac

tânărul /

the young man

tânăra / the young woman

un tânăr / a young man

o tânără / a young woman

G-D

tânărului / of (to) the young man

tinerei / of (to) the young woman

unui tânăr/ of (to) a young man

unei tinere / of (to) a young woman

plural

N-Ac

tinerii / the young men

tinerele / the young women

nişte tineri / some young men

nişte tinere / some young women

G-D

tinerilor / of (to) the young men

tinerelor / of (to) the young women

unor tineri / of (to) some young men

unor tinere / of (to) some young women

Inflection: NOUN[gender, number, case, article]

slide6

masculine

masculine – definite article

feminine – definite article

feminine

masculine – indefinite article

feminine – indefinite article

singular

N-Ac

tânăr / young

tânără/ young

singular

N-Ac

tânărul om/

the young man

tânăra femeie/ the young woman

un tânărom/ a young man

o tânără femeie/a young woman

G-D

tânăr/ young

tinere/ young

G-D

tânărului om/ of (to) the young man

tinerei femei/ of (to) the young woman

unui tânăr om/ of (to) a young man

unei tinerefemei/ of (to) a young woman

plural

N-Ac

tineri/ young

tinere/ young

plural

N-Ac

tinerii oameni/ the young men

tinerele femei/ the young women

nişte tinerioameni/ some young men

niştetinerefemei/ some young women

G-D

tineri / young

tinere/ young

G-D

tinerilor oameni/ of (to) the young men

tinerelorfemei/ of (to) the young women

unor tinerioameni/ of (to) some young men

unor tinerefemei/ of (to) some young women

Inflection: ADJECTIVE[gender, number, case]

Inflection: ADJECTIVE[gender, number, case and article]

[N.B.: in Romanian the adjective, if situated before its head noun, takes over the article]

slide7

part of speech

inflection

form

example (Romanian)

example (English)

1

NOUN

N – AC, plural, + indefinite article

nişte tinere / some young women

Nişte tinere au cumpărat cafea.

Some young women bought coffee.

2

G – D, singular, + indefnite article

unei tinere / (of) to a young woman

I-am cedat locul meu unei tinere.

I gave my seat to a young woman.

3

G – D, plural,

+ indefinite article

unor tinere / (of) to some young women

Le-am cedat locurile noastre unor tinere.

We gave our seats to some young women.

4

(NOUN) +

ADJEC-

TIVE

N – AC, plural

tinere

Profesoarele tinere s-au întâlnit la conferinţă.

The young teachers met at the conference.

5

G – D, singular

tinere

Lecţia profesoarei tinere a fost foarte plăcută.

The lesson of the young teacher was very pleasant.

6

G – D, plural

tinere

Lecţiile profesoarelor tinere au fost foarte plăcute.

The lessons of the young teachers were very pleasant.

7

ADJEC-

TIVE (+

NOUN)

N – AC, plural, + indefinite article

nişte tinere ...

Nişte profesoare tinere s-au întâlnit la conferinţă.

Some young teachers met at the conference.

8

G – D singular + indefinite article

unei tinere ...

Lecţia unei profesoare tinere a fost foarte plăcută.

The lesson of a young teacher was very pleasant.

9

G – D plural + indefinite article

unor tinere ...

Lecţiile unor profesoare tinere au fost foarte plăcute.

The lessons of some young teachers were very pleasant.

Homonymic forms, 1. [list]

slide8

Inflec-tion

form

observations

example (Romanian)

example (English)

4

N – AC, plural

tinere

- before the adjective there must be a feminine or neuter noun in plural

- the noun and the adjective have the same gender, number and case

nişte profesoaretinere

some young teachers

5

G – D, singular

tinere

before the adjective there must be

1) a feminine noun in G – D sg. or the noun must be preceded by

2) an indefinite article, sg., or

3) an adjective in G – D, sg.

- unless ther specific G – D sg. endings are identified in the noun phrase, the adjective is not G – D

1) lecţia profesoareitinere

2) lecţia unei profesoare tinere

3) lecţia acestei profesoare tinere

3) lecţia fiecărei profesoare tinere

3) lecţia amabilei profesoare tinere

1) the lesson of the young teacher

2) the lesson of a young teacher

3) the lesson of this young teacher

3) the lesson of every young teacher

3) the lesson of the nice young teacher

6

G – D, plural

tinere

before the adjective there must be

1) a feminine noun in G – D pl. or the noun must be preceded by

2) an indefinite article, pl., or

3) an adjective in G – D, pl.

- unless their specific G – D pl. endings are identified in the noun phrase, the adjective is not G – D

1) lecţiile profesoarelor tinere

2) lecţiile unor profesoare tinere

3) lecţiile acestor profesoare tinere

3) lecţiile amabilelor profesoare tinere

1) the lessons of the young teachers

2) the lessons of some young teachers

3) the lessons of these young teachers

3) the lessons of the nice young teachers

Homonymic forms, 2. [ (Noun) + Adjective structures, with observations]:

slide9

Inflec-tion

form

observations

example (Romanian)

example (English)

7

N – AC, plural, + indefi-nite article

tinere

- before the noun there must be an indefinite article, pl.

- the noun and the adjective have the same gender, number and case

niştetinere profesoare

some young teachers

8

G – D singular + indefi-nite article

tinere

- before the adjective there must be

1) an indefinite article, sg., or

2) an adjective in G – D, sg.

- unless ther specific G – D sg. endings are identified in the noun phrase, the adjective is not G – D

1) lecţia uneitinere profesoare

2) lecţia acestei tinere profesoare

2) lecţia fiecăreitinere profesoare

2) lecţia amabileitinere profesoare

1) the lesson of a young teacher

2) the lesson of this young teacher

2) the lesson of every young teacher

2) the lesson of the nice young teacher

9

G – D plural + indefi-nite article

tinere

- before the adjective there must be

1) an indefinite article, pl., or

2) an adjective in G – D, pl.

- unless ther specific G – D pl. endings are identified in the noun phrase, the adjective is not G – D

1) lecţiile unortinere profesoare

2) lecţiile acestortinere profesoare

2) lecţiile amabilelortinere profesoare

1) the lessons of some young teachers

2) the lessons of these young teachers

2) the lessons of the nice young teachers

Homonymic forms, 3. [Adjective+(Noun) structures, with observations]:

slide10

inflection

form

observations

example (Romanian)

example (English)

N – AC, plural, + indefinite article

tinere

- even if the situations NOUN + NOUN and ADJ. + ADJ. are excluded, these structures are still ambiguous, because the structures NOUN + ADJ. and ADJ. + NOUN are both possible

nişte muncitoare tinere

some hard-working young women/ some young labourers

G – D, singular, + indefinite article

tinere

unei muncitoare tinere

of a hard-working young woman/ of a young labourer

G – D, plural,

+ indefinite article

tinere

unor muncitoare tinere

of some hard-working young women/ of some young labourers

Homonymic forms, 4.

[(Adjective)+(Noun) structures with ambiguity as to ‘which is which’]:

slide11

The text used for verifying our analyser:

Legea nr. 349/2007 privind reorganizarea cadrului institutional in domeniul managementului substantelor chimice

[Law no. 349/2007 concerning the reorganisation of the institutional frame in the domain of chemical substances]

slide12

1) Art. 4. - Se desemnează ca autorităţi competente pentru aplicarea Regulamentului nr. 1.907/2006 al Parlamentului European şi al Consiliului din 18 decembrie 2006 privind înregistrarea, evaluarea, autorizarea şi restricţionarea substanţelor chimice (REACH), de înfiinţare a Agenţiei Europene de Substanţe Chimice, de modificare a Directivei 1999/45/CE şi de abrogare a Regulamentului Consiliului (CEE) nr. 793/93 şi a Regulamentului Comisiei (CE) nr. 1.488/94, precum şi a Directivei Consiliului 76/769/CEE şi a directivelor Comisiei 91/155/CEE, 93/67/CEE, 93/105/CEE şi 2000/21/CE, denumit în continuare Regulament, următoarele instituţii publice... // ... the Comission Regulation, called from now on Regulation ...

2) Agenţia Naţională pentru Protecţia Mediului, pentru implementarea Regulamentului şi pentru cooperarea cu Comisia Europeană şi Agenţia Europeană de Substanţe Chimice, în vederea implementării acestuia, potrivit art. 121 din Regulament... // ... with the purpose of its implementation ...

3) Art. 2. - (1) Personalul angajat în cadrul Agenţiei Naţionale pentru Substanţe şi Preparate Chimice Periculoase se preia de Agenţia Naţională pentru Protecţia Mediului şi de Garda Naţională de Mediu şi se numeşte în funcţii publice corespunzătoare, cu avizul Agenţiei Naţionale a Funcţionarilor Publici. // The personnel employed within the National Agency ...

4) PREŞEDINTELE CAMEREI DEPUTAŢILOR PREŞEDINTELE SENATULUI // PRESIDENT OF CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES PRESIDENT OF SENATE

slide13

the two nouns have to be consecutive, with no punctuation what so ever in-between

In search

of solutions:

our

NOUN + NOUN

tables

the observations apply exclusively for the correct use of Romanian language

“+” applies for combinations with the specified type of article;

“-“ applies when the noun is not articulated with the specified type of article

slide14

NOUN 1

NOUN 2

SYNTACTIC FUNCTION

EXAMPLE

OBSERVATIONS

N Ac - article

N Ac – definite or indefinite article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is a false apposition, complement of noun in Nominative

L-am întâlnit pe acest domn cancelar. /

I met Mister Chancellor.

[the translation does not represent the fact that the first noun is not articulated with definite or indefinite article]

- the two nouns are normally both either singular, or plural

- the combination must be preceded by a determiner (demonstrative, adjective + definite article, numeral)

- exceptions: 1) the compound nouns (example: copii-problemă – problem-children) 2) the nouns representing jobs which are not used in feminine (example: Am vorbit cu [aceste]doamne ministru. - I talked to [these] ladies minister);possible solution: a list containing the nouns in this situation

N Ac + indefinite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

N Ac + definite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D – possessive article

POSSIBLE, but extremely rare (old form)

1)Acest om, domn Moldovei, a salvat ţara de duşmani. /This man, ruler of Moldavia, saved his country from the enemies.

2)El, şef unei echipe de muncitori, ia întotdeauna decizii corecte. / He, chief of a team of workers, always takes good decisions.

- when the association of the two nouns is a direct one, the structure appears more frequently with the second noun articulated with an indefinite article: şef unei echipe de muncitori - chief to a team of workers

G D + possessive article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is complement of noun in Genitive

1)Pe acest prieten al soţului meu l-am întîlnit la Viena. I met this friend of my husband in Wien.

2)Pe acest prieten al unui coleg

l-am întîlnit în Viena. /I met this friend of a colleague in Wien.

- in example 1) the possessive article is imposed by the indefinite form of the head noun

- in example 2) the indefinite articleunui[ofa]is followed by a noun (possible by an adjective) in G D singular

Possible situations: unei + noun sg. GD // unei + noun sg. GD + adj. sg GD // unei + adj. sg. GD + noun sg GD [the last observation is important especially for feminine nouns]

Noun + noun table 1

slide15

NOUN 1

NOUN 2

SYNTACTIC FUNCTION

EXAMPLE

OBSERVATIONS

N Ac + indefi-nite article

N Ac – definite or indefinite article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is false apposition, complement of noun in Nominative

Am vorbit cu undomn profesor. I talked to a Mister Professor.

- the two nouns are normally both either singular, or plural

- exceptions: 1) the compound nouns (example: niştecopii-problemă –some problem-children); 2) the nouns representing jobs which are not used in feminine (example: Am vorbit cu nişte doamne ministru. - I talked to some ladies minister). Possible solution: a list containing the nouns in this situation

N Ac + indefinite article

IMPOSSI-BLE

-

-

N Ac + definite article

IMPOSSI-BLE

-

-

G D – possessive article

IMPOSSI-BLE

-

-

G D + possessive article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is complement of noun in Genitive

1)Nişte proiecte ale echipei noastre au fost aprobate. Some projects of our team were approved.

2)Nişte observaţii ale unui editor au fost discutate azi. Some observations of an editor were discussed today.

- the possessive article is imposed by the fact that the first noun is articulated with an indefinite article

- the second noun can be articulated with a definite (example 1) or an indefinite (example 2) article

Noun + nountable 2

slide16

NOUN 1

NOUN 2

SYNTACTIC FUNCTION

EXAMPLE

OBSERVATIONS

N Ac + definite article

N Ac – definite or indefinite article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is a false apposition, complement of noun in Nominative

L-am întîlnit pe domnul profesor.I met Mister Professor.

- the two nouns are normally both either singular, or plural

- exceptions: 1) the compound nouns (example: copiii-problemă – the problem-children); 2) the nouns representing jobs which are not used in feminine (example: Am vorbit cu doamnele ministru. I talked to the ladies minister). Possible solution: a list containing the nouns in this situation

N Ac + indefinite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

N Ac + definite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D – possessive article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D + possessive article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is complement of noun in Genitive (possessor)

1) Calităţile produsului sunt descrise aici. The qualities of the product are described here.

2) Calităţile unui produs au fost reevaluate. The qualities of a product were reassessed.

- the second noun can be articulated with a definite (example 1) or an indefinite (example 2) article

Noun + nountable 3

slide17

NOUN 1

NOUN 2

SYNTACTIC FUNCTION

EXAMPLE

OBSERVATIONS

G D – definite or indefinite article

N Ac – definite or indefinite article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is a false apposition, complement of noun in Nominative

I-am dat raportul acestui domn ministru. I gave my report to Mister Minister.

[the translation does not represent the fact that the first noun is not articulated with definite or indefinite article]

- the use of G D without definite or indefinite article is possible only if it is preceded by an adjectival determiner which takes over the G D ending

- the two nouns are normally both either singular, or plural

- exceptions: 1) the compound nouns (example: [acestor]copii-problemă – of / to these problem-children); 2) the nouns representing jobs which are not used in feminine (example: Le-am vorbit acestor doamne ministru. I talked to these ladies minister). Possible solution: a list containing the nouns in this situation.

N Ac + indefinite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

N AC + definite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D – possessive article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D + possessive article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is complement of noun in Genitive (possessor)

1) Descrierea acestei piesea maşinii este greşită. The description of this partof the car is wrong.

2) Dispunerea greşită a acestei piese a unei maşini e periculoasă. The misplacing of this part of a car is dangerous.

- the use of G D without definite or indefinite article is possible only if it is preceded by an adjectival determiner which takes over the G D ending

- the second noun can be articulated with a definite (example 1) or an indefinite (example 2) article

Noun + nountable 4

slide18

NOUN 1

NOUN 2

SYNTACTIC FUNCTION

EXAMPLE

OBSERVATIONS

G D + indefinite article

N Ac - article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is a false apposition, complement of noun in Nominative

I-am înmânat raportul nostru unui domn consilier.I handed our report to a Mister counsellor.

- the use of G D without definite or indefinite article is possible only if it is preceded by an adjectival determiner which takes over the G D ending

- the two nouns are normally both either singular, or plural

- exceptions: 1) the compound nouns (example: unor copii-problemă – of/ to some problem-children); 2) the nouns representing jobs which are not used in feminine (example: Le-am vorbit unor doamne ministru.I talked to some ladies ministers). Possible solution: a list containing the nouns in this situation.

N Ac + indefinite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

N AC + definite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D – possessive article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D + possessive article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is complement of noun in Genitive (possessor)

1) Greşelile unui proiectant al clădirii sunt fatale. The mistakes of a designer of the building are fatal.

2) Greşelile unui proiectant al unei clădiri sunt fatale.The mistakes of a designer of a building are fatal.

- the second noun can be articulated with a definite (example 1) or an indefinite (example 2) article

Noun + nountable 5

slide19

NOUN 1

NOUN 2

SYNTACTIC FUNCTION

EXAMPLE

OBSERVATIONS

G D + definite article

N Ac - article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is a false apposition, complement of noun in Nominative

I-am înmânat domnului ministruraportul./ I handed in the report to Mister Minister.

- the use of G D without definite or indefinite article is possible only if it is preceded by an adjectival determiner which takes over the G D ending

- the two nouns are normally both either singular, or plural

- exceptions: 1) the compound nouns (example: copiilor-problemă – of/ to the problem-children); 2) the nouns representing jobs which are not used in feminine (example: Le-am vorbit doamnelor ministru. - I talked to the minister ladies). Possible solution: a list containing the nouns in this situation.

N Ac + indefinite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

N AC + definite article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

G D – possessive article

POSSIBLE: the second noun is complement of noun in Genitive (possessor)

1) I-am arătat clientului companiei contractul. - I showed the client of the company the contract.

2) I-am arătat clientului unei companii contractul. - I showed the client of a company the contract.

- the two nouns do not have to have the same number; the second noun is subordinated to the first noun and represents the possessor

- the second noun can be articulated with a definite (example 1) or an indefinite (example 2) article

G D + possessive article

IMPOSSIBLE

-

-

Noun + nountable 6

slide20

Solutions to some of the (above-mentioned) ‘bad choices’ for syntagms:

In the case of Example no. 4 from above (slide nr. 12):

PREŞEDINTELE CAMEREI DEPUTAŢILOR PREŞEDINTELE SENATULUI /

/ PRESIDENT OF CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES PRESIDENT OF SENATE

the combination deputaţilor preşedintele is simply ruled out (as IMPOSSIBLE) by our table.

slide21

In the case of Examples no. 2 and no. 3:

...cooperarea cu Comisia Europeană şi Agenţia Europeană de Substanţe Chimice, în vederea implementării acestuia, potrivit art. 121 din Regulament... // ... with the purpose of its implementation ...

And

Personalul angajat în cadrul Agenţiei Naţionale// The personnel employed within the National Agency ...

the combinations vederea implementării and cadrul agenţiei are acceptable according to our table; but implementing a list of prepositionalcollocations will rule them out as syntagms (în vederea and în cadrul are prepositional structures specific to Romanian)

slide22

For Example no. 1:

denumit în continuare Regulament, următoarele instituţii publice... // ... the Comission Regulation, called from now on Regulation...

this construction is admittable according to the rules of our table; but it is ruled out by the condition of being preceded by an adjectival determiner; also, its statute can be clarified by using the list of prepositional collocations specific to Romanian (în continuare being such a structure)