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Part II Splanchnology. Chapter 6 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Ⅰ. General Description: * Constituents: 1.Respiratory tract: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, and its branches 2. Lungs 3. Pleura and plural cavity * Function: exchange O 2 and CO 2

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Part II Splanchnology


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part ii splanchnology

Part II Splanchnology

Chapter 6RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

slide2

Ⅰ. General Description:

* Constituents:

1.Respiratory tract:

nose, pharynx, larynx,

trachea, bronchus, and

its branches

2. Lungs

3. Pleura and plural cavity

* Function:

exchange O2 and CO2

mainly

* (Mediastinum)

slide3

Ⅱ. Nose:

  • 1. External nose—
  • 2. Nasal cavity— limen nasi
  • nasal vestibule
  • proper nasal cavity
    • nasal septum
    • lateral wall of nasalcavity
  • 3.Paranasal Sinuses—
  • frontal sinus
  • maxillary sinus
  • sphenoidal sinus
  • ethmoidal sinus
slide4

The formation of the nasal septum

2 Bones,

1 Cartilage,

Nasal mucous membrane:

olfactory region

respiratory region

The longitudinal

plate of ethmoid bone

The cartilage

of nasal septum

The vomer

back

slide5

Ⅱ. Nose:

  • 1.Nasal cavity—
  • nasal vestibule
  • proper nasal cavity
  • limen nasi
    • nasal septum
    • lateral wall of nasalcavity
    • ---superior, middle and inferior
    • nasal conchae
    • ---superior, middle and inferior
    • nasal meatuses
    • ---the openings of the paranasal
    • sinuses and the nasolacrimal duct
    • 2. paranasal sinuses:
  • frontal sinus
  • maxillary sinus
  • sphenoidal sinus
  • ethmoidal sinus
slide7

Ⅲ. Larynx

1. Position: It is located at anterior part of neck, in

front of 4~6 cervical vertebrae

2. Framework: It is formed by laryngeal cartilages and

their articulations

  • Cartilages:

thyroid cartilage

cricoid cartilage

epiglottic cartilage

arytenoid cartilage (paired)

slide8

Thyroid cartilage

sup. cornu

Laryngeal prominence

sup. thyroid notch

lamina

anterior angle

Laminae of thyroid cartilage

inf. cornu

Anterior view posterior view

slide9

Arytenoid cartilages

Muscular process

Vocal process

Muscular process

Vocal process

Cricoid arch

Cricoid cartilage

Cricoid lamina

Anterior view posterior view

slide10

Epiglottic cartilage

Anterior view posterior view

slide11

5

4

2

1

3

  • Articulation:

1. cricothyroid joint:rotate around the coronary axis

2. cricoarytenoid joints:rotate around the vertical axis

3. conus elasticus:free and thicked upper border formed the vocal ligament

4. quadrangular membrane:free lower border formed vestibular ligament

5. thyrohyoid membrane

slide12

Thyrohyoid membrane

Quadrangular

membrane

Conus

elasticus

Lateral view

Lateral view

slide13

3. Laryngeal cavity

3 parts: laryngeal vestibule

intermediate cavity of larynx

infraglottic cavity

by 2 fissures— vestibular fissure

fissure of glottis

laryngeal inlet

vestibular fold

vocal fold

ventricle of larynx

slide15

4. Laryngeal muscles:

    • Posterior cricoarytenoid:
  • It can open the glottis
    • Transverse arytenoid,
    • Oblique arytenoid,
    • Lateral cricoarytenoid:
  • They can close the glottis
    • Cricothyroid,
    • Posterior cricoarytenoid:
  • They can lengthen and tense
  • the vocal fold
    • Thyroarytenoid:
  • It can relax and shorten the
  • vocal fold
slide16

4. Laryngeal muscles:

    • Posterior cricoarytenoid:
  • It can open the glottis
    • Transverse arytenoid,
    • Oblique arytenoid,
    • Lateral cricoarytenoid:
  • They can close the glottis
    • Cricothyroid,
    • Posterior cricoarytenoid:
  • They can lengthen and tense
  • the vocal fold
    • Thyroarytenoid:
  • It can relax and shorten the
  • vocal fold
slide17

4. Laryngeal muscles:

    • Posterior cricoarytenoid:
  • It can open the glottis
    • Transverse arytenoid,
    • Oblique arytenoid,
    • Lateral cricoarytenoid:
  • They can close the glottis
    • Cricothyroid,
    • Posterior cricoarytenoid:
  • They can lengthen and tense
  • the vocal fold
    • Thyroarytenoid:
  • It can relax and shorten the
  • vocal fold