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Brain Higher Functions

Brain Higher Functions

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Brain Higher Functions

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  1. Diencephalon Cerebellum Cerebral Hemispheres Cerebral hemispheres Cerebellum “2-oval skull” (includes regions of higher functions) Brain Higher Functions

  2. Between cerebral hemispheres Mostly thalamus and hypothalamus Diencephalon(integrates conscious and unconscious activity)

  3. Five groups of nuclei Anterior group—limbic system Medial group—hypothalamus emotion center to cerebrum frontal lobe Ventral group—touch and proprioceptive information relayed to cerebral cortex Posterior group—optic and auditory information to cerebral cortex Lateral group—emotional state feedback from limbic system; integrates with sensory information Diencephalon Thalamus (relays sensory information and emotional state)

  4. Diencephalon Limbic system

  5. Diencephalon Limbic system

  6. Superior to pituitary gland (gland is in sella turcica) Connected to pituitary by infundibulum stalk Diencephalon Hypothalamus

  7. Feeding reflexes—licking, swallowing, etc. Subconscious skeletal muscle movements—facial expressions, sexual movements Autonomic center—control medulla oblongata nuclei for cardiovascular, respiration Secretes oxytocin that stimulates smooth muscle of uterus, mammary glands and prostate Regulates body temperature Controls pituitary gland by hormonal secretion—pituitary in turn regulates many hormonal endocrine functions Produces emotions/sensations/drives: e.g. thirst, hunger (not really “sensations” from periphery) Coordinates autonomic response to conscious input—thought of fear produces accelerated heart rate, etc. Diencephalon Hypothalamus function

  8. Regulates Cycles Secretes melatonin which helps regulate circadian and reproductive cycles Diencephalon Pineal gland

  9. Oval at back of cranial cavity Convoluted surface of neural cortex (like cerebrum) Huge branching Purkinje cells—each cell gets input from 200,000 synapses Internal branching looks like tree—called “arbor vitae (tree of life) Damage leads to “ataxia”—disturbance of muscular coordination Cerebellum(posture and movement)

  10. Two cerebral hemispheres separated by longitudinal fissure (sagittal plane) Central sulcus divide (coronal plane) separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe Horizontal lateral sulcus (in transverse plane) separates frontal lobe from temporal lobe Parietal-occipital sulculs separates parietal lobe from occipital lobe Cerebrum(processing central for somatic/conscious information)

  11. Left side receives somatic sensory and controls somatic motor of right side of body (and vice versa) Two hemispheres have different specialized areas (not symmetrical) Correspondence of functions with regions is difficult—lots of overlap and ability to “fill in” if areas are damaged Corpus callosum is bundle of axons that link two sides Cerebrum Cerebrum overall organization

  12. Cerebrum

  13. Basal nuclei/ganglia (sometimes considered part of midbrain) Deep in hemispheres Subconscious control of skeletal muscle Rhythmic movements—overall walking coordination Frontal Lobe (primary motor cortex)-voluntary control of skeletal muscle Parietal lobe (primary sensory cortex)—conscious perception from skin—touch, pressure, pain Occipital lobe (visual cortex)—conscious perception of visual field Temporal lobe (auditory cortex and olfactory cortex)—conscious perception of sound and smell All Lobes—integration and processing of sensory input to initiate conscious motor output Cerebrum Cerebral function in brief

  14. Cerebrum

  15. Interactive overview of basic regions of brain from PBS [link]