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6 Kingdoms of Life

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  1. 6 Kingdoms of Life

  2. As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.

  3. Carl Linnaeus was a scientist who developed a classification system for living things. Wrote book Systema Naturae in 1735 to reveal his classification system. Classifying Living Things

  4. 1. Comparing morphology (physical traits) 2. Looking at genetic similarities & differences 3. Biochemical make-ups 4. Behavioral similarities Origin of Life Video How biologists classify

  5. Cladogram- a branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships. We use taxonomy – the science of classifying living things, to help us determine the cladogram. Cladograms

  6. There are six kingdoms all living things are classified into: • Animals • Plants • Fungi • Protists • Eubacteria • Archeabacteria 6 Kingdoms

  7. Scientific Naming • Binomial nomenclature- unique 2-word naming system used by scientists. • 1st word is the genus, 2nd is the species. • Genus- group of organisms that share similar characteristics. • Panthera leo-lion • Panthera pardus-leopard • Species- group of organisms that can successfully breed within their group, but not others.

  8. Genus is always capitalized Species is always lower case The whole name is underlined if written or italicized if typed. Example: Homo sapiens How to write a scientific name

  9. Homo sapiens: • Homo = genus • sapiens = species • Common name = humans • Quercus rubra– • Quercus = genus • rubra = species • Common name = red oak • Scientific names are in Latin b/c scholars in the Middle Ages communicated using it! Examples

  10. Classification • Scientists have determined seven levels of classification: • Kingdom = Kids • Phylum = Pick • Class= Candy • Order = Over • Family = Fancy • Genus = Green • Species = Salads

  11. Classification of Modern Humans • Kingdom = Animalia • Phylum = Chordata • Class = Mammalia • Order = Primates • Family = Hominidae • Genus = Homo • Species = sapiens

  12. The grouping of organisms into KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors: • 1. Cell Type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) • 2. Cell Number (unicellular or multicellular) • 3. Feeding Type (autotroph or heterotroph) • 4. Cell Wall composition

  13. 1stCriteria for Kingdom Divisions: Cell Type Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

  14. 2nd criteria for Kingdom Divisions: Cell Number • Unicellular- single celled organism – protozoans, bacteria, some algae • Multicellular- many celled organism – cells start to specialize/differentiate

  15. Unicellular • Multicellular

  16. 3rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions Feeding Type - How the organisms get their food • Autotroph or Producer • Make their own food • Heterotroph or Consumer • Must eat other organisms to survive • Includes decomposers – those that eat dead matter!

  17. 6 kingdoms • Eubacteria • Archaebacteria • Protista • Fungi • Plantae • Animalia

  18. Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia 6 Kingdoms Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

  19. Archaebacteria Kingdom • Ancient bacteria- • Live in very harsh environments • extremophiles

  20. The common bacteria that most people talk about when they say “bacteria”, because they live in more neutral conditions. Eubacteria Kingdom

  21. Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes • They all have a cell wall Bacteria

  22. Protists include many widely ranging microbes, including slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae. Protists The “Junk Drawer” Kingdom

  23. There are animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists • Some are beneficial • Some protists can cause diseases in humans, such as: Protista Kingdom

  24. BlepharismaProtist • Unicellular • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder • Eat bacteria from decomposing vegetation • Considered the most evolved and complex of the protozoans • Locomotion Cilla

  25. Paramecium • Unicellular • Heterotrophic • Feed mostly on bacteria • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters • Locomotion Cilla

  26. Stentor Protozoan • Large protist • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder • Blue/green color • Trumpet shaped • Feeds on bacteria and other small creatures • Locomotion Cilla

  27. Spirostomum Protozoan • Unicellular • Heterotrophic • Feeds on bacteria • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters • Locomotion Cilla

  28. Euglena • Unicellular • Autrotrophic – have chloroplasts • Absorb food from environment • Locomotion flagella

  29. Amoeba • Unicellular • Heterotrophic • The diet of amoebas include bacteria, metozoa, protozoa, plant cells, etc. • Habitat – freshwater / saltwater • Locomotion- Pseudopods

  30. Amebic dysentery - is an infection of the intestines caused by the parasite Entamoebahistolytica. Protists Disease Ameba histolytica Amebiasis is contracted by consuming contaminated food or water containing the cyst stage of the parasite. It can also be spread by person-to-person contact.

  31. African Sleeping Sickness They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites. Protists Disease Trypanosoma

  32. Malaria-Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Protists Disease Plasmodium

  33. Protists can be autotrophs or heterotrophs Protists Nutrition

  34. The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms. Heterotrophic- break down dead organic material and continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. Fungi Kingdom

  35. All fungi are eukaryotic • They may be unicellular or multicellular • All fungi have a cell wall just like plants Fungi Unicellular (yeast) Multicellular

  36. Fungi can be very helpful and delicious Many antibacterial drugs are derived from fungi - penicillin Fungi accounts for the blue vein in blue cheese! Fungi Penicillin

  37. Fungi live off, or consume dead or decaying plant or animal material which is an important role they play in all ecosystems. All fungi absorb their food. Fungi Energy Sources

  38. Fungi also causes a number of plant and animal diseases: Fungi • Athlete's Foot

  39. Ringworm Fungi

  40. Fungi are stationary They have root-like structures that they use for attachment Mushroom are fungal fruiting bodies. Fungi Locomotion

  41. All plants are multicellular, their cells having a cell wall Autotrophs-make own carbs for energy through photosynthesis Plant Kingdom

  42. 4 important plant groups are the: Non-vascular Mosses (Bryophytes) Ferns (Pteridophytes) Vascular Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Conifers (Gymnosperms)

  43. Nonvascular Plants - Mosses • the simplest of all land dwelling plants  • Nonvascular (no “veins”)-lack an internal means for • water transportation  • do not produce seeds or flowers • - fertilization depends on water medium to get the sperm to the egg. • lack a woody tissue necessary for support around their “stems” and so are usually relatively short

  44. Mosses

  45. Vascular Plants-Angiosperms and Gymnosperms • Internal transportation System • Xylem – water carrying tubes • Phloem – sugar carrying tissues • enables plants to evolve into larger specimens. • Produce Seeds – protects and nourishes an Embryo of the new plant

  46. Gymnosperms • Conifers (pine cones) • Oldest vascular plants

  47. Angiosperms - flowering plants