Mughal Empire. 1450-1750. Babur r. 1526-1530 Akbar r. 1556-1605 Auranwzeb r. 1658- 1707. Mughal Empire 1526-1857. Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire was an imperial power which ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th centuries.
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Mughal Empire 1450-1750
Babur r. 1526-1530 Akbar r. 1556-1605 Auranwzeb r. 1658- 1707 Mughal Empire 1526-1857
Mughal Empire • The Mughal Empire was an imperial power which ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th centuries. • At the height of its power, around 1700, it controlled most of the subcontinent and parts of what is now Afghanistan. • Mughal means Mongol in Arabic
Early Mughal History • Established around 1504 by Timurid prince, Babur, descendent of Ghenghis Khan and great-grandson of Timur or Tamerlane • In 1526, Babur defeated last of the Delhi Sultans to secure his new kingdom using artillery and horse-mounted archers • Babur’s descendents will go onto to rule the subcontinent for next several hundred years
Babur (r. 1526-1530) • Muslim emperor from Central Asia [Uzbek] but cultural lineage was Persian • Drew on support from Turkic and Persian peoples with very diverse multiethnic army • Was helped by many to overthrow Ibrahim Lodh, the last Delhi Sultanate, who was despised by many
Mongol Traditions • As the Mongols had done elsewhere, the Mughals adopted Islam and the Persian culture • The first Mughal King, Babur, established the Mughal Dynasty in regions spanning parts of present-day Pakistan and India • Upon invading the region, the Mughals inter-married with local royalty and formed a Turko-Persian and Mongol Dynasty • Characterized by religious tolerance • Only one of the Mughal emperors, Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan’s son, would utilize state persecution of non-Muslims
Akbar (r. 1556-1605) • Akbar the Great was only 13 when he became emperor • Many military victories and expansion of empire • Tolerant attitude towards other religions discussions of faith was common • Secular emperor
Abd allah Musawwir. The Meeting of the Theologians, c. 1540-49, miniature from a manuscriptsecular art/ a beggar outside of a mosque/ profusion of patterns
Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658) • Persian word meaning “King of the World” • Golden Age of the Mughals • Architecture • Threats from Deccan, Bengal, and Northwest • Centralized court and artwork used to express state ideology
Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658) • Shah Jahan probably left his greatest legacy by his building projects and palace renovations • Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Shalimar Gardens • Peacock Throne, now located in Iran • Patron of fine arts • Romance and serenity
Taj Mahal (Agra, India), 1632-1654Muhgal (Mongol)Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal/ architectural metaphor for paradise and the Throne of God/ mausoleum with minarets/ reflecting pool/ symmetrical balance/ a planned black mausoleum for Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb (r.1658-1707) • Alamgir I aka Conqueror of the Universe • Murdered brother, imprisoned father, and abandoned religious tolerance of predecessors • Sunni Fundamentalist • Sharia Law • Destruction of Hindu and Sikh Temples* • Reintroduction of Non-Muslim taxes
Aurangzeb (r.1658-1707) • Expansion of Empire but continuous wars helped to drain resources • Religious intolerance and lack of economic and political leadership will begin the decline of the Mughal Dynasty • Successors of Aurangzeb will be unable to maintain the wars and the economic links to keep the Mughals viable • Islamic laws and wars against Hindus and Sikhs helped to unify these groups against the Muslim Mughals
Mughal Empire • Most notable of Babur’s descendents were Akbar, his grandson and Shah Jahan, Akbar’s grandson • One of the most recognized buildings in the world was commissioned by Shah Jahan • The Taj Mahal in Agra as a tomb for his wife
Mughal Golden Age • The classic period of the Empire starts with the accession of Akbar the Great in 1556 and ends with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, although the Empire continued for another 150 years. • During this period, the Mughal Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions of India. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, date to this period.
Mughal Decline • Most decisively the series of wars against the Pashtuns in Afghanistan weakened the very foundation upon which Mughal military rested. • The Pashtuns formed the backbone of the Mughal army and were some of the most hardened troops and seriously undermined the Mughal miltary apparatus when they resisted changes in tax and administrative systems. • The powers of Europe were challenging themselves to the game of who could conquer these foreign lands and exploit their riches and wealth for their own personal gain. • The Mughal throne auctioned its agricultural crown lands to the Dutch or the British for revenue extraction and the end was near.
The Saffavid or Persian Empire 1450-1750
The Persian Empire • The Saffavid Dynasty hailed from the region of Azerbaijan. • The Saffavid Shah Ismail I overthrew the White Sheep (Akkoyunlu) Turkish rulers of Persia to found a new native Persian empire. • Ismail expanded Persia to include all of present-day Azerbaijan, Iran, and Iraq, plus much of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Shah Ismail I (r. 1502-1524) • Shah of Iranand the founder of the Safavid Dynasty which survived until 1736 • Isma'il started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, a Twelve Shia militant religious order and unified all of Iran by 1509 • Full conversion from Sunni to Shia
The Persian Empire • Ismail's expansion was halted by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514 • War with the Ottomans became a fact of life in Safavid Iran. • Sunni versus Shia Islam • Turk v. Persian?
Shah Abbas I (the Great)/ Shi’aSafavid Dynasty/ Isfahan/ iwans (vaulted hall or space)
Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami (Isfahan, Iran), c. 1354, glazed mosaic tilework
The Persian Empire • The Safavids were followers of Shi'a Islam, and under them Persia (Iran) became the largest Shi'a country in the Muslim world, a position Iran still holds today. • Under the Safavids, Persia enjoyed its last period as a major imperial power. • In 1639, a final border was agreed upon with the Ottoman Empire which delineates the border between the Republic of Turkey and Iran and also that of between Iraq and Iran, today.
Persia and Europe 1722-1914 • Throughout the Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of ancient Greeks were furthered and preserved within the Muslim world. • During this period, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century. • In 1722, the Safavid state collapsed. That year saw the first European invasion of Persia since the time of Heraclius: Peter the Great, Emperor of Imperial Russia, invaded from the northwest as part of a bid to dominate central Asia. Ottoman forces accompanied the Russians, successfully laying siege to Isfahan. • The Russians conquered the city of Baku and its surroundings. The Turks also gained territory. However, the Safavids were severely weakened, and that same year (1722), the Afghans launched a bloody battle in response to the Safavids' attempts on trying to forcefully convert them from Sunni to Shi'a sect of Islam. The last Safavid shah was executed, and the dynasty came to an end.
The Persian Empire • Persia found relative stability in the Qajar dynasty, ruling from 1779 to 1925, but lost hope to compete with the new industrial powers of Europe • Persia found itself sandwiched between the growing Russian Empire in Central Asia and the expanding British Empire in India. • Each carved out pieces from the Persian empire that became Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Georgia and Uzbekistan, amongst other previous provinces. • Although Persia was never directly invaded, it gradually became economically dependent on Europe. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 formalized Russian and British control over the north and south of the country, respectively, where Britain and Russia each created a "sphere of influence.”