Pricing Techniques and Analysis Chapter 14. Value-based more than cost-based pricing often helps build profits. Firms charge different customers different prices, which is known as price discrimination . This chapter also looks at pricing within a firm called transfer pricing .
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Pricing Techniques and Analysis Chapter 14 • Value-based more than cost-based pricing often helps build profits. • Firms charge different customers different prices, which is known as price discrimination. • This chapter also looks at pricing within a firm called transfer pricing. • Pricing techniques that are used by many multi-product firms, such as full-cost pricing and target return pricing. 2005 South-Western Publishing
Proactive Value-based Pricing • If the price doesn’t fit what customers are willing to pay, then the product may not be profitable. • Customer value is the focus for pricing, not just the costs associated with the product. • Apple Computer lost market share by ignoring customer value. • The Ford Mustang was a success, as Ford found that people wanted a sports car, but didn’t want it to be too expensive. The started with a price and designed the product. • The Mustang used value-based, not cost-plus pricing
Intertemporal Pricing • If at peak rush hour, the toll is higher than at the off-peak, we are using different prices at different time periods. • The peak toll can encourage shifting travel patterns to off-peak times or discourage some commuting altogether. • Intertemporal pricing appears more frequently than one thinks. This is just one variety of what is called price discrimination.
Figure 14.1 Page 605 • If the price at off-peak is POP is the same price as the peak, the traffic volume varies from QOP to QPEAK. • If the price at the peak is P’P, the traffic volume varies less, from QOP to QC. P’P POP DPEAK DOFF-PEAK QOP QC QPEAK shift
Price Discrimination • Price Discrimination -- Goods which areNOT priced in proportion to their marginal cost, even though technically similar • Some Necessary Conditions: • 1. Some Monopoly Power • Otherwise, in pure competition, P = MC • 2. Ability to Arbitrage • Separate customers and prevent reselling
Arbitrage - Buy Low to Sell Higher • Arbitrage of Goodsis Easy • Price discrimination of goods is ineffective • Little price discrimination of grocery items • Arbitrage of Services is Difficult • Price discrimination of services is effective • Price discrimination at restaurants by age, as restaurant food is a service • Lawyers charge different prices for wills, based on ability to pay
1. Geography as when the price in the East-side and West-side differ 2.Incomeas the American Econ Association charges more to professors than students 3. Genderas when jeans for women are priced higher than similar jeans for men 4.Ageas when kids get in at lower prices for movies 5.Time of day or season 6.Raceas when shampoos targeted for African-American hair are priced differently that other shampoos, though technically the same. 7. Language as when products printed in Spanish are priced differently than those in English 8. Transient/Residentas when contracts pay less at hardware stores than other customers 9. Ability to Haggle when those how ask for a lower price get it Ways to Separate Customers for Price Discrimination
In Simple Monopoly, there is only one price Consumers receive a consumer surplus In Price Discrimination, monopolists can SCOOP OUT all consumer surplus Why Price Discriminate? MC Simple Monopoly CS PSM D Q QSM
Charge the MOST that a person is willing to pay for each good Zero consumer surplus Produce MORE than in Simple Monopoly Output the same as in Competition Perfect Price Discrimination(or 1st Degree Price Discrimination) Price Discriminating Monopoly MC D Q Q1st
Perfect Price Discrimination Does it Work for Car Dealers? At 6%, that’s about $12,000 for 60 months, plus $3,000 “How much do you plan to pay a month?” you inadvertently reply: “$232 per month, and have a $3,000 down payment!” Here’s one for only $15,000. It’s swell.
The conditions for perfect price discrimination are seldom met Hence, some close approximations exist There are are a variety of ways to group units to attempt to scoop out consumer surplus Notice:Incentives to Understate One’s True Willingness to Pay Second Degree Price Discrimination: Units are Grouped
Second Degree Price Discrimination: Two-Part Pricing Figure 14.2 Car rental per day is the ‘Cover Charge’, and mileage fee at P or P* • A price for the privilege of buying items PLUS a price per item • Examples: • Car rental per day with mileage charges per mile • Amusement parks • Country Club Dues and Greens Fees • Cover Charge to Enter a Bar and a Price Per Drink Cover Charge P* P D2 D1 Q Car renters may not know how much they will use the car (D1 or D2). They may prefer a lower rental rate (cover charge) with a per mile charge, P*.
Second Degree Price Discrimination: Unlimited Access A specified price for an unspecified quantity: Example: AOL unlimited access for $19.95/month Examples: Salad Bars, Legal Retainers, HMO’s The area under the demand curves represent most willing to pay. P Ounces of Salad
Second Degree Price Discrimination: Bundling Often the pricing arrangement includes purchasing groups of dissimilar products. The products are bundled or sold as a block, as in theatrical or sporting tickets: Movies A & B and Theaters 1 & 2. Preferences are uncorrelated Preferences are correlated A B A B 1 2 250 270 150 100 80190 80 100 165 175 180 340 500 360 Bundling is more Profitable. 165 200 = 365 simple monopoly 160 200 = 360 simple monopoly
Bundling & Mixed Bundling • McDonalds sells Extra Value Meals, as a bundle of sandwich, fries, and a soft drink for less than it sells them separately. • Selling both bundles and items separately is mixed bundling. • If Bob would pay $3 for a burger and $1 for a soft drink, and if Mary would pay $2 for a burger and $2 for a soft drink, a bundle of $4 for both a burger and soda will work for both customers as a bundle. • But if the price of a burger individually were $2.5 and a soft drink $1.50, then Bob would buy only a burger and Mary only a soft drink. • Not everyone is alike, so mixed bundles succeeds with more customers.
One Price for All Regions East West Market PM MC MR Example with a Simple Monopoly Price (PM)in both markets
Third Degree Price Discrimination East West Market PE PM PW MC MR MR MR Example with DifferentPrices in Each Market
Mathematics of Price Discrimination • Using elasticities P( 1 + 1/ ED ) = MC • In two regions: P1( 1 + 1/ E1 ) = P2( 1 + 1/ E2 ) = MC or: P1/ P2 = ( 1 + 1/ E2 )/( 1 + 1/ E1 ) • If the elasticities in region 1 and region 2 are -1.25 and -2.5 respectively, then P1/ P2 = (1+1/ -2.5)/(1+1/-1.25 ) = 3. • Hence, P1 = 3P2. • The price is three times higher in region 1, which less elastic.
Pricing of Multiple Product • Products are INDEPENDENT when changes in price and quantity of one product do not alter revenues or cost in the others • Products are INTERDEPENDENT, when changes DO affect other products • Ex: Procter & Gamble makes both Luvs and Pampers • TR = TRA + TRB
Substitutes & Complements • Look for interdependencies in marginal revenues: • MRA = TRA / QA +TRB / QA • MRB = TRA / QB+ TRB / QB • Substitutes when cross terms arenegative • Erosion or Cannibalism are terms used, such as Pampers & Luvs. • Complementswhen cross terms are positive • Mitsubishi Electric sells DVD Players and blank DVDs
Decision Rule for Multiple Product Firms • Do NOTuse the rule to produce where MR=MC, as in MRA = MCA • INSTEAD: • Produce where the FULL MR =FULL MC • For a Two Product Firm of A & B • Produce where: TRA /QA + TRB /QA= TCA /QA + TCB /QA Include all relevant revenue and cost effects
Pricing Example in Supermarkets • Turkey prices fall during Thanksgiving • Yet we would expect DEMAND to be greatest?! • Loss Leader Pricing • Consider T as turkey • and A as all other food • TRstore = TRT + TRA MRstore for turkey = TRT /QT+ TRA /QT • Complementarity with other food explains the apparent conundrum 3 ¢ / lb. with $10 purchase
Pricing in Practice • In practice, pricing strategy involves the whole life-cycle pricing of the product. • Managers report wide use of cost-pluspricing methods because it: • Streamlines pricing of multiple products • Streamlines pricing of retail prices
Cost-Plus and Full Cost Pricing P = ACn + Markup orP = ACn(1 + m) where ACn is average cost at a normal output and m is a percentage markup Notice: Little reliance on MC pricing or use of elasticities, as in: P( 1 + 1/Ep ) = MC
Full Cost Pricing • Full Cost-- • Covers all Costs at the standard or normal output • Plus a return on the investment • P = VCl + VCm + F/Q + p K/ Q • Where VCl and VCm are unit labor cost and unit material cost respectively (which is average variable cost). • wherep Kis the target amount of profit • and p is the desired profit rate and K is gross operating assets • Q is the number of units expected to be produced over this time horizon.
Example: Low Tech Security Start a firm with F = 200,000, Q = 3000, total labor cost is $40,000 and total material cost is $50,000 p= 20% and K=$500,000. Find Full Cost Price! • Answer • P = VCl + VCm + F/C + (.20)(500,000)/Q • P = 13.33 +16.67+ 30 + 66.67 + 33.33 = $130 • Also, suppose a 35% markup on average cost • P = [ AC] (1.35) • P = [ 30 + 66.67 ](1.35) • P = $130.50
Cost-plus is simple It is easy to delegate to others Easy to apply to thousands of items Can use categories of markups for different classes of products But cost-plus ignores demand changes Pricing may be based on poor cost data Output varies in business cycle Advantages & Disadvantages of cost-plus pricing Hybrid Method: Variable Cost-Plus Pricing -- the markup can vary over the season, or business cycle
Grocery storeshave low markups Many close substitutes -- at other grocery stores (bread varieties and qualities are standardized) Frequent purchase, so customers are knowledgeable about prices & quality Demand is therefore highly elastic Optimal markup would consequently be small Optimal Markups in Practice 1999 South-Western College Publishing
Jewelry Markups are known to be large Difficult to make comparisons across jewelry stores Little repeat purchases, so knowledge about prices is low Consequently, lower price elasticity for jewelry The optimal markup is larger Markups on Jewelry 1999 South-Western College Publishing
Skimming • Price declines over time • Those who wish to get it first pays the highest price, others are willing to wait • Examples: • Hardcover & Paperback Books • New electrical, computer products, and PDAs. P D TIME 1999 South-Western College Publishing
Prestige Pricing • Some products distinguish themselves by being noticeably expensive. • Mercedes, Audi, or BMW • Cartier jewelry • The price is itself a way to distinguish the product from others • Prestige Pricing is the practice of charging a high price to enhance its perceived value. • However, the firms typically have to spend a great deal in promotional activities to convince customers that the product is prestigious.