the history of evolutionary thought
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The History of Evolutionary Thought. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Ladder of Life 2 types of animals – those w/ blood & those w/o Animals classified by their way of life Plants by structure Observation of various marine life anatomy was remarkably accurate Distinguished whales from dolphins.

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aristotle 384 322 b c
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
  • Ladder of Life
          • 2 types of animals – those w/ blood & those w/o
  • Animals classified by their way of life
  • Plants by structure
  • Observation of various marine life anatomy was remarkably accurate
  • Distinguished whales from dolphins
slide3
Carol von Linné (1707 – 1778)

“Father of Taxonomy”

  • Linnaeus was classifying organisms based on what they looked like.
  • This made it difficult to classify organisms that seemed to share characteristics with both kingdoms that Linnaeus proposed, Plants and Animals.
  • For example, fungi including mold and mushrooms do not move (or do they?) so they seem to be plants but, unlike plants…..?????
jean baptiste lamarck 1744 1829
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
  • His name is associated merely w/ a discredited theory of heredity – he died in obscurity & poverty
  • Darwin & Lyell give him great credit
  • Law of use/disuse
  • Law of acquired characteristics
charles darwin 1809 1882
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
  • Voyaged around the world 1831-1836
  • Wrote On the Origin of Species which reveals his ideas on Evolution by means of Natural Selection
natural selection summarized
Natural Selection Summarized:

Darwin’s theory suggests that in a species:

  • There is a tendency towards overproduction
  • Variationexists
  • Variations are inherited
  • Individuals survive in their environments with varying degrees of success
  • Best adapted, survive and pass favorable variation on to next generation
  • In time, great differences arise, until a new species evolved from an old species
slide12
Biological fitness:

The contribution an individual

makes to the gene pool

of the next generation relative

to contributions of other

individuals

Offspring should be fertile

alfred wallace 1823 1913
Alfred Wallace (1823-1913)
  • Studied the way geography limited or facilitated the extension of species range
  • How ecology influenced the shaping of adaptations
  • In 1858, shared with Darwin on the Theory of Evolution by means of Natural Selection
slide14
Genetic variation exists in sexually reproducing populations
  • Different alleles are available in the population thus producing
  • different phenotypes.
slide16
The Hardy–Weinberg principle states:
  • Both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant or are in equilibrium from generation to generation unless…
  • Disturbing influences happen such as non-random mating, mutations, selection, limited population size, random genetic drift and gene flow.
  • Genetic equilibrium is a basic principle of population genetics.
p 2 2pq q 2 1 p q 1
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1; p + q = 1

Hardy-Weinberg Principle

homologous structures
Homologous Structures
  • Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues.
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