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jorma rytk nen kari lampela

THE TWINNING LIGHT PROJECT BG2006/IB/TR/02/UE/TWLOF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA CAPACITY BUILDING FOR ENCHANCED CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION GENERATED BY SHIPS IN THE BLACK SEADevelopment of a procedure for the confirmation of CleanSeaNet satellite images and prefeasibility study of remote sensing and surveillance arrangements in Bulgarian territorial watersSofia,Bulgaria, May 29th 2009

Jorma Rytkönen & Kari Lampela

  • Background – cronical and illegal spill monitoring
  • Aerial surveillance and satellite monitoring
  • EMSA’s CleanSeaNet
  • Prices for aircrafts
  • UAV’s
  • Remote Monitoring Policy
  • Main Findings
  • Stakeholder’s opinions on the oil pollution prepareddness
background cronical illegal spills
Background – Cronical/Illegal Spills
  • Large spills of oil and related petroleum products in the marine environment can have serious biological and economic impacts.
  • In the Black Sea area during the year 2000 – 2004, i.e. in five years interval totally 3125 satellite images were produced by EMSA (European Maritime Safety Agency) showing 1227 possible oil spills.
  • These spills concentrate along the main shipping channel from the Turkish Strait to the ports of Romania, Ukraine and Russia
Compilation of the satellite images in years 2000 -2004 in the Black Sea. Totally 3125 SAR images, and 1227 possible oil spills detected (Ferraro, 2000). The red lines drawn to the figure are made by the authors of this report to show the main shipping channels. These lines form also the strategical lines for enhanced confirmation activities.
remote monitoring principles
Remote Monitoring Principles
  • There are two basic methods to monitor operational, accidental or illegal oil spills: satellite surveillance and airborne surveillance with the remote sensing instruments onboard.
  • The current approach is to use these two basic alternatives together; modern technology makes it possible to process, identify the potential oil slicks and deliver the data in less than 30 minutes to the responsible national experts.
Operational spills are of growing concern as volumes of maritime transportation rate is growing (year 2007)
observations by cleanseanet s satellite service system in 2008 all eu areas haapasaari 2009
Observations by CleanSeaNet’s satellite service system in 2008 – all EU areas (Haapasaari 2009).
Bulgarian waters , January - September 2008. Satellite images – detected and verified information (Haapasaari, 2009).
case helcom cepco south 2008 coordinated extended pollution control operations
Case: Helcom CEPCO* South 2008(*Coordinated Extended Pollution Control Operations)
  • Eample: HELCOM CEPCO South 2008 took place from Lübeck airport in Germany from 17th till 19th of June.
  • 4 nations (Denmark, Sweden, Estonia and Germany) participated in the CEPCO. Poland took part with one stand-by vessel.

IWGAS-Meeting 2009

Germany – Head of Pollution Control Operations NAW3

during the operation

11 pollutions und

1 polluter

were found.

KptLt. Bünsen

cepco south 2008
CEPCO South 2008………….
  • .
  • Flights took place over a period of 23 hours in 8sorties.
  • If this would represent constant flow of pollutants, per year it would correspond 4189 spills – only in that small restricted area.
  • The total flow to Baltic Sea would thus be at least ten fold, i.e. 40 000 spills.
  • If one spill 200l, >total over 8 000 ton.
costs of the areal surveillance service about sensors required
Costs of the areal surveillance service; about sensors required
  • SLAR (Side Looking Airborne Radar) 1…1,5 M€
  • SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) 3….5 M€
  • IR/UV Scanner (Infra Red /Ultraviolet )
  • FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared )100k€
  • Camera/Video equipments
  • FLAR (Forward looking Radar)
  • Fluorosensors
  • MWR(Micro Wave Radiometer)

Swedish Coast Guard’s CASA-aircraft contains the FLAR-radar used as a weather radar, but also for surveillance operations


Indicative Costs of Patrol Aircrafts [$] (Source FAO: The Costs of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of Fisheries in Developing ... ) table level 1999

Other case studies give around 1000 – 1500 $/ flight hour

New Dorniers for Finland, around 8…10 M€/piece – New Swedish aircrafts (3) around 60 M€

uav s applicability and reliability is better better
UAV’s ??? Applicability and reliability is better & better
  • Wingspan: 4.5 feet (1.37 meters)Weight: 4.2 lbs (1.9 kilograms)Weight (ground control unit): 17 lbs (7.7 kilograms)Speed: 30-60 mph (26-52 knots)Range: 8-12 km (4.9-7.45 miles)Endurance: 60-90 minutesOperating Altitude: 150-500 feet air ground level (45-152 meters)System Cost:  approximately $173,000 (2004 dollars)Payload: High resolution, day/night camera and thermal imager
uav s
  • Wingspan: 66 feet (20.1 meters)Length: 36 feet (11 meters)Height: 12.5 feet (3.8 meters)Weight: 4,900 pounds (2,223 kilograms) emptyMaximum takeoff weight: 10,500 pounds (4,760 kilograms)Fuel Capacity: 4,000 pounds (602 gallons)Payload: 3,750 pounds (1,701 kilograms)Speed: cruise speed around 230 miles per hour, (200 knots)Range: 3,682 miles (3,200 nautical miles)Ceiling: up to 50,000 feet (15,240 meters)Crew (remote): Two (pilot and sensor operator) Unit Cost: $53.5 million (includes four aircraft with sensors) (fiscal 2006 dollars)

Pioneer-RQ2 owned by Romanian Air Forces

uas and ua costs and weights
UAS and UA costs and weights

Source: US Office of the Secretary of Defence: UAV Roadmap 2005

recommended policy for remote control and surveillance esa
Recommended policy for remote control and surveillance (ESA)
  • The CleanSeaNet development must be supported by thoroughfully reporting on detected, undetected and/or all observed slick, objects etc.
  • EMSA will improve the satellite image processing all the time, but requires feed back from the field.
  • Here the good co-operation among all stakeholders having remote monitoring in their agenda would improve the image identification accuracy.
preliminary findings
Preliminary findings
  • There is a clear need for the establishment of the national air surveillance system. This requires actions to define the competent body, services required and the budget lines. The most important factor then to be defined are:
    • Responsible organization
    • Needed administrative actions, agreements, etc.
    • Needed resources - training
    • Equipments
    • Finance.
  • Here Bilateral/trilateral/regional co-operation should be considered
preliminary findings1
Preliminary findings
  • The oil drift model in use should to be modified to be based on the real-time data.
  • All Black Sea countries should have a joint harmonized service tools for hydrodynamic data combined with necessary AIS data.
  • A common Black Sea policy in confirmation of observed slicks should be developed. This requirement is in the line of the proposed new Strategic Action Plan (SAP 2009) of the Black Sea Commission, which defines the need for both the confirmation of illegal oil spills and the harmonized enforcement system in the case of illegal oil discharges.
main findings
Main Findings………..
  • The decision matrix tool must be developed for BMA.
  • Most part of the detected oil images are taking place far away of the coastline, thus the actions to reach the place take a lot of time and resources.
more information contacts
More Information & Contacts
  • Mr. Kari Lampela
  • Finnish Maritime Administration
  • Tel: +358 40 580 2155
  • E-mail:
  • Mr. Jorma Rytkönen, Research Director
  • Kymenlaakso University of Applied Sciences
  • Tel: +358 44 702 8516
  • E-mail: