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CRT MONITOR c athode- r ay t ube. CRT. ( C athode R ay T ube) A vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer monitor or TV. The viewing end of the tube is coated with phosphors, which emit light when struck by electrons.

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Presentation Transcript
  • (Cathode Ray Tube) A vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer monitor or TV. The viewing end of the tube is coated with phosphors, which emit light when struck by electrons.
  • In the past, CRT was a popular term for the entire computer display terminal. Today, "monitor" is the correct term as computer displays have shifted from CRTs to flat LCD panels .
  • Likewise, TV sets are widely available in LCD and plasma flat panel technologies. However, the CRT television is not over and done with.
  • "Direct view" CRT sets come in wide screen, HDTV models that are more affordable and offer quality equal to or better than LCD and plasma
crt basics
CRT Basics








electron beam












how crt works
How CRT works
  • CRTs receive their picture through an analogue cable, and that signal is decoded by the display controller, which handles the internal components of the monitor - think of it as the mini-CPU for the monitor.
  • CRTs have a distinctive funnel shape. At the very back of a monitor is an electron gun. The electron gun fires electrons towards the front through a vacuum which exists in the tube of the monitor.
  • The gun can also be referred to as a cathode - hence the electrons fired toward are called Cathode Rays.

How CRT works

  • These rays correspond to to the red, green and blue channels of the display and video card.
  • At the neck of the funnel-shaped monitor is an anode, which is magnetised according to instructions from the display controller.
  • As electrons pass the anode, they are shunted or pulled in one direction or the other depending on how magnetic the anode is at that time.
  • This moves the electrons towards the correct part of the screen.

How CRT works

  • The electrons pass through a mesh, and this mesh defines the individual pixels and resolution on the screen. Electrons that pass through the mesh then hit the phosphor coating which is on the inside of the glass screen.
  • When the particles hit the phosphor, they immediately light up - causing the light to shine through the front of the monitor, thus making up the picture on the screen.
  • There are three differently colored phosphors for each pixel (known as phosphor triads), and depending on which phosphor the electron hits, that's which color the pixel will light up.
difference in components
Difference in Components
  • Different monitors differ in quality, and this is often dependent on the technology and components used internally.
  • Some CRT monitors use a single electron gun at the rear of the monitor to produce the electrons that will become the red, green and blue electron rays.
  • However, higher quality monitors have an individual gun for each, which can increase picture quality.
  • The metal used for the mesh at the front of the monitor will also affect quality. Electrons also produce ions because of imperfections in the vacuum, and these electrons are destructive to image quality if they hit the phosphor.
  • Consequently, meshes are made of relatively thick metal to prevent phosphor damage.
  • However, in better quality monitors, a thinner, yet tougher metal alloy is used for the mesh. Because it's thinner, it means more light can get through, making for increased brightness and higher contrast.
aperture grille v shadow mask
Aperture Grille v Shadow Mask
  • Each CRT has a sheet of metal at the front of the monitor which (partly) defines the pixels on the screen. Shadow mask is an older technology, and is literally a piece of metal with millions of holes in it which allow the different cathode rays through to hit the phosphour.
  • Because a shadow mask covers the whole back of the screen, protecting the phosphor from stray ions, it also limits the strength of the rays, reducing the brightness of the monitor.
  • Aperture grille is a newer technology which defines the gaps through which electrons pass using a mesh of wires rather than a sheet with holes in. Whereas a shadow mask is made of circular holes, the grill is made of vertical slots. Because it is by its nature thinner, it allows for brighter displays.

However, the grill is fragile and prone to being knocked around. The grill is therefore strapped to the monitor using stiff horizontal wires - this is what causes the distinctive pair of lines across high-end aperture grille monitors.

  • Invar mask is a variant of shadow mask, and uses a thinner, stronger metal to form the mask, allowing for better image quality whilst remaining cheaper than aperture grill to produce.
dot pitch and resolution
Dot pitch and resolution
  • Each pixel on the CRT screen is defined by lighting up combinations of the red, blue and green phosphors that make up the pixel. With a varying strength of electron gun operating on each phosphor, different colors are produced - with red, blue and green all fired on maximum strength, that means bright white is produced.
  • Dot pitch is measured on most monitors as the distance, diagonally, between two phosphors of the same color. However, some manufacturers quote dot pitch on monitors as the horizontal distance between phosphors, which can make them appear better specified, on paper, than perhaps they are.
refresh crt vector crt
Refresh CRT (Vector CRT)












interface to

host computer

(display commands)

(interaction data)





refresh buffer memory

alphanumeric keyboard

data tablet

advantages of crt
Advantages of CRT
  • The cathode rayed tube can easily increase the monitor’s brightness by reflecting the light.
  • They produce more colours
  • The Cathode Ray Tube monitors have lower price rate than the LCD display or Plasma display.
  • The quality of the image displayed on a Cathode Ray Tube is superior to the LCD and Plasma monitors.
  • The contrast features of the cathode ray tube monitor are considered highly excellent.
disadvantages of crt
Disadvantages of CRT
  • They have a big back and take up space on desk.
  • The electromagnetic fields emitted by CRT monitors constitute a health hazard to the functioning of living cells.
  • CRTs emit a small amount of X-ray band radiation which can result in a health hazard.
  • Constant refreshing of CRT monitors can result in headache.
  • CRTs operate at very high voltage which can overheat system or result in an implosion
  • Within a CRT a strong vacuum exists in it and can also result in a implosion
  • They are heavy to pick up and carry around