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Chapter 27. Empire and Expansion “IMPERIALISM” Timeframe: 1890-1909. American Foreign & Domestic Policy. ________ : the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal ______________________, often in the form of an ____, based on _________________________________."

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chapter 27

Chapter 27

Empire and Expansion


Timeframe: 1890-1909

american foreign domestic policy
American Foreign & Domestic Policy

________: the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal ______________________, often in the form of an ____, based on _________________________________."

_________________ : the theory that supports war

Post Civil War America: ____________________



DOMESTIC Issue: America focused on a domestic agenda and _________

Foreign Issue: Emerge as a “___________” for _________________through military strength, and social structure

New Conscious: STRENGTH, land hungry, pride….

3 goals influences of american imperialism
3 GOALS / Influences of American Imperialism
  • _______________________

(2) _____________________________________

  • Alfred T. Mahan – ___________________________
  • Purpose: the key to a nation’s power is to build up your military (__________________)
  • Teddy Roosevelt’s (___________) _________________

*Paint ships WHITE and cruise all around the world

Purpose: _________________________________

(3) _____________________________________

*Saving Souls / Civilizing the uncivilized

Example: Rev. Josiah Strong’s Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis.



- British Poem published in 1899

latin american imperialism
Latin American Imperialism________________
  • James G. Blaine’s “________________________-”
    • to get Latin American countries behind the leadership of the U.S

(Latin American Markets will be open to Yankee Traders)

*_______________________ Washington D.C.

(First conference to build a stronger relationship with Latin America)

Extension of the __________________

  • Hawaii had been alluring to Americans since the early 1800's when shippers, sailors, whalers, and missionaries went there.
  • Why is America interested:
    • Shippers, merchants, sailors (_____________) – Pearl Harbor
    • Entrenched in Sugar and Fruit plantations ($)
    • America already largely ran the country through economic issues as the plantations flourished

MAJOR Problem: Concerns were that

    • _______________________ and
    • ________________________(1890) = “protective tariff” was too strict

How do we fix it?!?

queen liliuokalani
Queen Liliuokalani
  • Last reigning queen of the Hawaiian Monarchy
  • Stood up for / defended the Hawaiian people from the imperialistic powers

of the American leaders


- ____________________________ (1893)

Led under the influence of the American Embassy Leader (__________________)

“The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe…and this is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it”

Papers were drawn up and sent to Washington D.C.

Purpose: Annex the Hawaiian islands into America

*1892 – final year of Harrison’s term

1893 – President Cleveland (2nd term)WITHDREW the treaty!

The United States would eventually GET / TAKE Hawaii in 1898

spain and cuba
Spain and Cuba
  • 1895 – 1st Cuban Revolt: Cuban rebels (plantation burners) have an uprising against the oppressive Spanish leaders. (MOST FAMOUS: _____________)

*Main focus: UNITED STATES “supports” Cuba

  • ______________________________________
  • it would be good for the ______________________


(3) Cuba ___________________________where the U.S. was dreaming of a ___________________.

Problem: Spain wants to restore order in Cuba!


“The Butcher”

- Spanish General sent to restore order against the Cuban rebels

Tactics: created concentration camps

(1/3 of Cuban Population)

Yellow Journalist LOVED these stories!

causes of the spanish american war
Causes of the Spanish American War

(Indirect Cause of the Spanish American War)

(1) _______________________________________________


William Randolph Hearst sent Frederic Remington down to Cuba and said



(Indirect Cause of the Spanish American War)

(2) _________________________________________________:

Spanish official Dupuy de Lôme wrote a letter which criticized

Pres. McKinley

William Randolph Hearst published the letter for all to read;

Americans were upset.

Cuban rebel intercepts and passes it along to America

(Direct Cause of the Spanish – American War)

(3) ___________________________: February 15, 1898, when the

U.S.S. Maineexploded at night in Havana harbor killing 260

American sailors.

1976 – U.S. found out Spain did not cause explosion

spanish american war in the philippines
Spanish-American War in the Philippines

Teddy Roosevelt (Secretary of the Navy) sends________________________to move to the Philippines (controlled by Spain) if war broke out.

May 1, 1898, Dewey moves out

Spanish Navy vs. American Navy

(We were beasts!)

Philippine Action: ___________________ led Filipino rebels against Spain (supported America)

TURNED AGAINST AMERICA and led the Philippine-American War (_________________________)

(ONLY country to fight America after the Spanish-American War ….from a result of freedom from Spain)

Result: The Philippines were sold to America for $20 Million and Congress annexed them into America as a “_________________”


After, Congress and McKinley wanted Hawaii…so they took it (annexation) on July 7, 1898

Let’s go to Cuba

spanish american war in cuba
Spanish-American War in Cuba
  • U.S. harbored in at Tampa, Florida
  • Spain in Santiago, Cuba

*More deaths from disease than bullets

***********_______________________– led by __________________and Leonard Wood

  • Volunteer Calvary that fought the Spanish soldiers in Cuba
  • Roosevelt resigned from the Secretary of Navy position
  • American ships from Tampa down to Santiago, Cuba.
  • *After the success with Cuba, America wants Puerto Rico!
end of spanish american war
End of Spanish-American War
  • _________________ (1898)
  • Nicknamed the “___________________”
    • Coined by John Hay (Secretary of War)
    • “______________________________” (LATER)
  • Armistice (_______________) was signed between America and Spain on August 12, 1898
gains from the treaty of paris
Gains from the Treaty of Paris

______________and independent, as the Teller Amendment had said it would be.

The U.S. gained

  • ________________________
  • ________________________
  • assumed control of the ___________________.

*Most significant threat: Philippines


  • ______________________________
  • ______________________________
  • ________________

McKinley’s Decision?_____________

back to the philippines philippine american war 1899 1902
Back to the PhilippinesPhilippine-American War 1899-1902
    • The Filipino people felt tricked when they weren't given their independence after the Spanish-American War.
  • ___________________, the Filipino Army led an rebellion against the American soldiers
  • Filipinos were led by Emilio Aguinaldo

America dips below morals:

  • Water-Boarding
  • Set up concentration camps similar to Weyler's in Cuba!
  • Killed innocent Filipinos searching for freedom
mckinley s reaction building the philippines
McKinley’s Reaction / Building the Philippines
  • Sent __________________(Later President in 1908-1912) to act as the government leader in the Philippines
  • “________________________"—slow Americanization!
    • With millions in American money, the infrastructure (roads, sanitation, etc.) was greatly improved. Public health improved as well, trade, school****Builds into his ___________________with Latin America

- guaranteeing loans to Latin American businesses

- Outcome: American economic presence in Latin America

    • Still, the Filipino's wanted freedom. Independence was finally granted just after WWII, on July 4, 1946.
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • Under American control after the Spanish-American War
  • Under Military Rule until the ____________(1900) was established
  • Full U.S. citizenship was granted to Puerto Ricans in 1917
  • Foraker Act: ___________________________________________


  • _____________________________: Question: Do rights apply to the new cultures under American law
  • America's laws and customs do not necessarily extend to these new lands
cuba s teller documents vs platt amendment
Cuba’s Teller Documents Vs. Platt Amendment

__________________: Congress proclaimed American _________________Cuba and would grant Cuba their freedom

Problem: After America won the Spanish-American War in 1898, Cuba was granted their freedom. While America helped Cuba win independence, their newly written Cuban constitution __________________________________________________!

Platt Amendment: America forced the Cuban leaders to amend their Constitution and place a relationship.

  • ________________________ that the U.S. didn't like.
  • Cuba couldn't take on too much debt. The __________________________________if necessary.
  • U.S can build a _______________________
  • This became the "Guantanamo Bay" military base.
    • Detainment camp
john hay s open door policy spheres of influence
John Hay’s Open Door Policy / Spheres of Influence
  • Japan defeats China in a war in 1895
  • _____________________________________________________–

coining the phrase “____________________________” (SOI)

United States – influences the ___________________

Europe – influences the _______________________

  • JOHN HAY writes influential letters to these European leaders saying the ________________________________________________________________



  • European reaction:
  • Chinese reaction:
  • American reaction
  • Chinese Martial Artists sprung up to “______________________”
  • China got smashed and was charged!
  • China's fine was $333 million; America's cut would be $24.5 million. Feeling guilty about such a high amount, the U.S. used $18 million to educate Chinese students in American universities.
  • After: the ___________________was accepted
1900 presidential election
1900 Presidential Election
  • Just like 1896

_____________________(Populist/Dem.) Vs. ____________________(Rep.)

McKinley wins reelection

Why? (Teddy Roosevelt was his running mate)

Only six months after being reelected, McKinley was shot and killed in Buffalo, NY by a mentally unstable man. V.P. Teddy Roosevelt became the youngest president ever at only 42 years old.

teddy roosevelt and the panama canal
Teddy Roosevelt and the Panama Canal
    • America, and Teddy Roosevelt, lusted after a canal across isthmus of Central America.
      • The Spanish-American War showed that ______________________________.

A canal would also be _________________________.


  • ________________________
  • ____________________________


(1) Diseases

(2) Task

-largest modern engineering undertaking to date

- finished in 1914

- cost $400 million

  • _________________________(remember?)
    • Signed between Britain and the U.S. that neither

Could habitat certain Latin American areas

Britain decided to push their aggression to the side

___________________________________ Treaty (1901)

2 Choices:

(1) _______________ – Volcano erupts killing 300,000 people

(2) _____________________ – obvious choiceProblem: Panama is controlled by _______________________

Panamanian Revolution (1901)

- Panamanian rebels revolted against Colombia and shot a Colombian leader and a donkey

  • America was “conveniently ” offshore and helped Panama wins independence from Colombia
  • MAIN RESULT: leased the canal to the U.S. for $10 million and $250,000/year for a 10 mile wide canal strip.
  • ISSUE: U.S –__________________________________________!

U.S. appeared as bullying Latin America around! (______________)

tr adds to the monroe doctrine
TR “ADDS” to the Monroe Doctrine/ _____________________________
  • Latin American / Caribbean countries owe $ to Europe (_____________________________.)
  • TR thinks they will come collect and interfere with the Monroe Doctrine (1823)!
  • To solve his worries, TR creates the Roosevelt Corollary – an extension to the Monroe Doctrine in which states act as policemen


Monroe Doctrine: “Europe, don’t intervene!”

Roosevelt Corollary: “Europe, we will intervene for you!”

(Collecting taxes)



(TR) ________________vs.

(FDR) __________________

roosevelt on the world stage
Roosevelt on the World Stage

________________________ (1905)

  • Between ______________over expansion rights in ______________(Manchuria)
  • TR was hired as mediator
  • Treaty of _________________ solved the problem
  • Outcome: split the land
  • Relationships between Russia, Japan and America soured!
  • Result: TR wins the ________________________
japanese laborers in california immigration restriction
Japanese Laborers in California / Immigration Restriction
  • In 1906, ____________was recovering from a devastating earthquake and fire. The school board ordered __________________-of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students.
  • POSSIBLE WAR!!!!!!!!!
  • Roosevelt invited the school board to the White House where he mediated a deal known as the “____________________." It said that the school board would _________________________________________________________


  • William Taft (President after Roosevelt 1908-1912) arranged American bankers to LOAN money to Latin America

Overall Outcome: U.S. government will “GUARANTEE” loans made to Latin American countries that are made by American businesses

  • Purpose: ___________________________
  • **** To have a U.S. presence in

Latin America

Famous Quote: “Dollars for Bullets”

woodrow wilson s
Woodrow Wilson’s _____________

Progressive President: _____________ (WWI = 1914-1918)

*Gave the Monroe Doctrine / Roosevelt Corollary a “_____” tone!

  • POINT: Moral Diplomacy

Woodrow Wilson ______________________________________________________________________________________________

  • This HELPS spread Democracy!!!!

Problem: MEXICO gets ANGRY!!! (Mexican government DID NOT care about their citizens)

*This leads to the Mexican Revolution…..