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Regionalism and the Formation of New Nations in Latin America PowerPoint Presentation
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Regionalism and the Formation of New Nations in Latin America

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Regionalism and the Formation of New Nations in Latin America

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  1. Regionalism and the Formation of New Nations in Latin America • The Impact of the Bourbon Reforms • The Concept of the Patria chica • Role of Trade and Economics • The Rise of the Patria grande • What do you need to create a nation state?

  2. Bourbon Reforms • 1782 Intendancy system created • Expanded native born participation in municipal councils (Cabildos) • Encouraged repairs, road building, et cetera • Headed by intendants who challenged who challenged the authority of the Viceroy

  3. Colonial Organization of Latin America

  4. Latin American Colonies 1780

  5. Intendancy System, New Spain

  6. Patria Chica vs. Patria Grande • Economic Relations help shape loyalties to local regions • While export economy dominated imperial and later national leaders, local patterns of trade and exchange developed throughout Latin America • How do you reconcile national and local needs

  7. What do you need to form a nation state? • A sense of community-- “An Imagined Community” • A concept of citizen—who belongs • A set of political principles that all accept: monarchy, republicanism, democracy, etc. • A set of laws that apply to everyone • A definition of boundaries

  8. Liberals vs. Conservatives • How do we define “liberalism” and “conservatism” in a 19th century perspective • What relationships do liberals and conservatives have with “centralism” and “federalism”? • Where does the Catholic Church fit in? • How do 19th century liberals and conservatives deal with issues of gender?

  9. Liberalism • Based upon political and economic principles formulated in late 18th and 19th Great Britain and the United States • Political principles: belief in a contract between those who govern and the people, no taxation without representation, separation of church and state-more egalitarian-but in practice accepted strong central governments • Economic principles: free trade, theories of comparative advantage (Ricardo)-looked to Europe • Social principles: does little to challenge patriarchy within the family although it is considered undemocratic---leads women like Mary Wollenstonecraft to object (1792) • How does this apply to Latin America?

  10. Conservatism • Belief in Hispanic, Catholic traditions • Supportive of authoritarian regimes • Supported strong central governments • Often supported monarchy in the Americas • Tended to defend local privilege and economic traditions • Believed in the subordination of women to patriarchy and church • Wanted to restrict voting rights, particularly to ethnic and racial minorities—believed in Republicanism, rather than democracy---many liberals agreed on this • The problem of creating an effective executive authority often brought consensus to both groups

  11. Constitutions • Both liberals and conservatives created constitutions that discussed how the form of government to be followed • Conservatives tended to support federalism, or an alliance of regions or states, with a weak central government • Liberals tended to support a strong central state, with an equally strong executive power • In practice, both supported strong executives, although liberals adopted them later, not in many early constitutions • Liberals often wanted the central government to control revenues, particularly duties on importation • Both groups patterned their constitutions on US Constitutions