Regionalism and the Formation of New Nations in Latin America • The Impact of the Bourbon Reforms • The Concept of the Patria chica • Role of Trade and Economics • The Rise of the Patria grande • What do you need to create a nation state?
Bourbon Reforms • 1782 Intendancy system created • Expanded native born participation in municipal councils (Cabildos) • Encouraged repairs, road building, et cetera • Headed by intendants who challenged who challenged the authority of the Viceroy
Patria Chica vs. Patria Grande • Economic Relations help shape loyalties to local regions • While export economy dominated imperial and later national leaders, local patterns of trade and exchange developed throughout Latin America • How do you reconcile national and local needs
What do you need to form a nation state? • A sense of community-- “An Imagined Community” • A concept of citizen—who belongs • A set of political principles that all accept: monarchy, republicanism, democracy, etc. • A set of laws that apply to everyone • A definition of boundaries
Liberals vs. Conservatives • How do we define “liberalism” and “conservatism” in a 19th century perspective • What relationships do liberals and conservatives have with “centralism” and “federalism”? • Where does the Catholic Church fit in? • How do 19th century liberals and conservatives deal with issues of gender?
Liberalism • Based upon political and economic principles formulated in late 18th and 19th Great Britain and the United States • Political principles: belief in a contract between those who govern and the people, no taxation without representation, separation of church and state-more egalitarian-but in practice accepted strong central governments • Economic principles: free trade, theories of comparative advantage (Ricardo)-looked to Europe • Social principles: does little to challenge patriarchy within the family although it is considered undemocratic---leads women like Mary Wollenstonecraft to object (1792) • How does this apply to Latin America?
Conservatism • Belief in Hispanic, Catholic traditions • Supportive of authoritarian regimes • Supported strong central governments • Often supported monarchy in the Americas • Tended to defend local privilege and economic traditions • Believed in the subordination of women to patriarchy and church • Wanted to restrict voting rights, particularly to ethnic and racial minorities—believed in Republicanism, rather than democracy---many liberals agreed on this • The problem of creating an effective executive authority often brought consensus to both groups
Constitutions • Both liberals and conservatives created constitutions that discussed how the form of government to be followed • Conservatives tended to support federalism, or an alliance of regions or states, with a weak central government • Liberals tended to support a strong central state, with an equally strong executive power • In practice, both supported strong executives, although liberals adopted them later, not in many early constitutions • Liberals often wanted the central government to control revenues, particularly duties on importation • Both groups patterned their constitutions on US Constitutions