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1992

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  1. 1992 • The devolopingcountriesask for financial help • The Commission propose to double itsfinancingsupport by 1997 • Structural funds 2/3 and ½ • Increase the EEC sources from 1,20 to 1,37% of gdp • Cope with the weak industrial sector

  2. Efta and Eecsigned for EES 1992. Severaldebates from the 1980’s : ESM • 1984 “LuxemburgDeclaration”: europeaneconomicspace (a common internal market for them), 1989 a closerinstitutionalcooperation • 1992: The Eftacountiesaccepted the freedom of circulationof goods, people, services

  3. agriculture and fishing: increase the level of liberalizationthroughbiletaralagreement • 5 years of financial help for Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain • Eftacounties do notentered EEC because of theirstatute of neutrality, or because of public opinion

  4. EES first point of contactafter the decline of the concept of neutrality. • Austria (1989) Sweden (1991), Finland and Norway (1992) • EES wasnotenough. The Eftacountrieswanted to join the institutional and politicalintegration with the “west”

  5. Pac : 1991 Commissionproposed to reduce protection • Priceswere no more fixedaccording to the interests of producers • Decrease of agriculturalpricesgaranteed and production limitation and rentalcompensation • Pacchangesitsrole from a cohesionfactor to a dividingfactor

  6. The reduction of guaranteed production wasimplementedduring an economiccrises and unemployment rate • In France the reformwasfighted and considered the result of US pression • French agricultural world has a strong politicalpower

  7. Danish referendum 2 june 1992 • 1973: ratificationtreatyobtained 63% • 1986: ratification of ESA 56% • “Danishdifference” suspiciousabout the germanattitude. Theyenteredfollowing GB, theybelong to the scandinavian world • Theywereagainstfederal model, against franco-germanaxis

  8. Danishdefendtheirnationalindipendence, “Wethinkwe are special with respect to the Southern countries, weneverthrustedthem” • First symtomsagainst Bruxelles Leviatan • Mitterandcalled for the referendum • Major decided to wait for the othercountriesratification

  9. GB fearseuroskepticism • Britishdebate on the absence of a democraticspirit of EEC, on the federalstructure, the “excessiverole” of the Commission to “interfere with national law”, on the functional model implemende from the 1950’s

  10. Debate on “subsidiarityprinciple”: specific EEC and nationalcompetences. • It can lead to questioncession of sovereigntyprinciple • Pragmaticsolutionbecause of the absence of a EuropeanConstitution • Giscard proposed to call for the power of the Court of Justice to decide in case of conflict

  11. Itwas no accepted. Why? • Isitpossible to harmonize the labour market when the impact of EMU will be concrete? • “Transparency” and “Democratic deficit”: the EEC decisions more close and easer to understandwherethey come from • To strengh the relationshipbetween EP and national community

  12. Lisbon EC: ratify Maastricht Treaty, no debatearounddanish referendum, itconcernsabout “A closer Union for itscitizens”. The Commissionstruggle to mantainitspower to decide the implementation of Sudsidiarity • Stalled moment: Denmarkwanted to be the last to ratify, the samegoes for France and GB

  13. GonzalezsubmittedSpanish ratification to the grantof new structuraland cohesion funds • No common foreign policy. Sustain to Bosnia indipendencebutno strong measuresagainst Serbia • September France referendum: in juneitwasexpected a yes vote, in August increasepercentage of novote.

  14. Decrease in production, increaseunemployment, decreaseconsensus to Mitterandpresidency • Raise of nationalisttoughtagainstGerman“nightmare” • Increase of information campaign • Crisiswithin the world of financeskeptical on the future of a EMU and EMS

  15. Yes vote 51,01% against 48,98% • Economic and financingcrisesstill in force • Dollarexperienceditslowerlevel with respect to the deutschemark • Lira and poundwereasked to devalate • ClashesbetweenGerman and Britishleaders

  16. Lira devaluated • Germaninterestratesremainedunchanged • Peseta devaluate, lira and poundleftEMS • Recession in GB, slow Useconomicrecovery, Germanreunification, danish no and crisis of consensus of Mitterand in France

  17. Major proposed an extra EurpeanCouncil to discussthesematters. • Birmingham october: GB describes Maastricht as the path for progress. • Issuesdebated: 1)subsidiarity, 2)transparency, 3)democratic deficit. • 1) decentralize the activities and let to the community to take the actionwhen the measureswherefinanced by EEC budjet

  18. 2)3) simplify and clear the decisionmakingprocess , link the EP activity with the one of nationalparliaments, closer link with the citizens • The community fearsthat GB willnotratify. Itfears the politicalpriorityassigned by Major to the enlargmenttowardEftacountries. • Denmarkremainedagainst the dimension of common security, against the EMU, and europeancitizenship

  19. EdimburghEuropeanCouncildecember: • The danishrequestswereaccepted, GB decided to wait for the danish vote • Transparency procedure will be increasedthrough public session • Subsiadirityisenforcedas a dynamicconcept • EEC budjedtquestion: increase of resources for lessdeveloped EEC countries, lowering of PAC financing, relaunch economy and empoyment