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Pharmacotherapy : The main effects of drugs on different diseases

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Pharmacotherapy : The main effects of drugs on different diseases Pharmacodynamic : The effects of drugs on living system Pharmacokinetic : The fate of drugs in living system Pharmacognosy : Natural sources of drugs

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Pharmacotherapy : The main effects of drugs on different diseases
  • Pharmacodynamic : The effects of drugs on living system
  • Pharmacokinetic : The fate of drugs in living system
  • Pharmacognosy : Natural sources of drugs
  • Pharmacogenetic : Different responses to drugs because of genetic variations
pharmacokinetic
Pharmacokinetic

ADME:Absorption,Distribution,Metabolism,

Excretion

ADME will be changed by Pregnancy

Therapeutic index = LETHAL DOSE / THERAPEUTIC DOSE

TI of Digoxin,Warfarin and Lithium is very small

So they are very Dangerous

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Pharmaceutic : Disintegration and Solubility

Elixir > Suspension > Cap > Tab > Matrix tab > Enteric coated

Pharmacokinetic

Absorption , Distribution , Metabolism ,Excretion ADME

Absorption from intestine > Skin

Absorption from sublingual > subdermal

Non ionized > Ionized

Route of dug administration :

Enteral : Gastrointestinal tract

Parenteral : Subcutaneous, Intramuscular,Intravenous,Intrathecal

Pulmonary

Topical

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Distribution
  • Plasma protein : Albumin , sulfunamide
  • Binding : Warfain 99%,Cimetidine 20%
  • Competition : Aspirin and Warfarin ( Bleeding )
  • Hypoproteinemia : Liver failure
  • Adipose tissue : Accumulation ( Thiopental )
  • Bone : Tetracycline ( Browning of the teeth )
  • Blood brain barrier : Anesthetics
  • Placental barrier : Anesthetics , Steroids
  • Bioavailabiliy : Intravenous dose / Administered dose
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Excretion:
  • Kidney : Ionized drugs > non ionized drugs
  • Alkalinization ( Phenobarbital ) Bicarbonate
  • Acidification ( Amphetamine ) Vitamin C
  • G.I.Tract : Morphine
  • Lungs : Anesthetics
  • Saliva : Dermatitis ( some intravenous drugs )
  • Mammilary glands : pH= 6.5 Morphine
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Affinity: Drug binding to its receptor
  • Efficacy: Effects after drug binding
  • Potency : Capability of drugs in similar doses Lid4 Pril 1
  • Physiologic Ant: two receptors Histamine,Salbutamol
  • Pharmacologic Ant: one receptor acetylcholine,Atropine
  • Chemical Ant : Without recepterFe,desferoxamine
  • Competetive Ant: Acetylcholine,Atropine
  • Non competetive Ant : Phanoxybenzamine
  • Partial agonists : Their efficacy is less than full agonist
  • Loading dose = Volume of distribtion×Total concenration
  • Therapeutic index= LD 50 / ED50 Digoxin
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Predictable adverse effects
  • Age : Infants and old patients , Chloramphenicol
  • Body mass : Infants ( per KG )
  • Sex : Fat and water ratio ( male and female )
  • Time of administration : With meal Aspirin
  • Idiosyncrasy: unusal responses to drugs
  • Tolerance : Disappearance of effect Morphine
  • Tachyphylaxis : Rapid tolerance Local anesthetics
  • Dependence : Physical,Psychological Morphine
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Tincture : Preserved from light , Belladona

Syrup : Sweet, Hydroxyzine

Elixir : Addition of some materials,Acetaminophen

Suspension : Shaking before using,Furazolidone

Lotion:With alchohol,Kalamine

Ointment : Semisolid shape ,

Cream : With water ,

Pill,Dragee : Unfavorable pills

Ovule : Vaginal , Clotrimazole

Suppository : Indomethacin

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bid bis in dis
  • dc Discontinue
  • gtt gutta
  • KVO KeepVein 0pen
  • NS normal saline
  • OTC over-the-counter
  • Prn pro re nata
  • qd quaue die
  • qid quarter in qie
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