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Climate Change & Technology Transfer. AGU October 6-7, 2010. Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Shrinking Window of Opportunity.

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Climate Change & Technology Transfer


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    1. Climate Change & Technology Transfer AGU October 6-7, 2010 Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    2. Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Shrinking Window ofOpportunity Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    3. Increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere must be limited to 450 parts per million (ppm) of CO2e if the world is to have a fifty-fifty chance of not crossing the temperature threshold. • This means no more than 1,456 Gt CO2, or around an annual average of 14.5 Gt CO2, of carbon dioxide emissions should be released into the atmosphere in the 21st century. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    4. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    5. Technology For Adaptation in Energy Sector?? • Power Plant • Renewable Energies • Energy Management Technology is not about mitigation, it is also adaptation for the energy sector! Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    6. The Global Context of Technology Transfer • Technology transfer is considered to be a key element in combating climate change under the UNFCCC. • Necessity to realization global cooperation especially North-South and South-South • It is an important element in all multi-lateral environmental agreements (MEAs) • Technology transfer includes several phases of technology development, deployment, dissemination, adoption and “domestication” • TT is one of the pillars of the Bali Action Plan endorsed by UNFCCC COP in 2007 and is now one of the negotiations tracks for post Kyoto Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    7. Technology Transfer IPCC defined Technology Transfer as: “….. a broad set of processes covering the flows of know-how, experience and equipment for mitigating and adapting to climate change amongst different stakeholders such as governments, private sector entities, financial institutions, NGOs and research/education institutions.” • It encompasses diffusion of technologies and technology cooperation across and within countries. • It covers technology transfer processes between all countries (developed, developing, economies in transition) • It comprises the process of learning to understand, utilize and replicate the technology, including the capacity to choose & adapt to local conditions & integrate it with indigenous technologies. -IPCCC Special Report of Working Group III, “Methodological and Technical Issues in Technology Transfer” Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    8. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER UNDER THE UNFCCC AND KYOTO PROTOCOL • Article 4.5 of the Convention addresses technology transfer, stating that “developed countries…shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally-sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention.” • Article 10c of the Kyoto Protocol contains a similar commitment. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    9. In 2001, Parties to the UNFCCC adopted a framework for actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4.5. • The framework contains five key activities relating to: • Technology Needs Assessments (TNA), • Technology Information, • Enabling Environments, • Capacity Building and • Mechanisms for Technology Transfer. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    10. Funding to implement the framework is provided through the climate change focal area of the Global Environment Facility and the Special Climate Change Fund. • The CDM is also expected to contribute to the transfer of cleaner and more efficient technologies to developing countries. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    11. Parties to the UNFCCC took further action in 2001 by establishing an Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) to help advance the Convention’s technology-related goals. • Since then, workshops have been held on technology information (Beijing, China, April 2002), needs assessments (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 2002), enabling environments (Ghent, Belgium, April 2003), innovative financing (Montreal, Canada, September 2004 and Bonn, Germany, October 2005), and adaptation technologies (Tobago, June 2005),.......(Bonn, June 2010) Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    12. The Poznan COP reconstituted the EGTT for a period of five years (decision 3/CP.13), • Adopt Poznan Strategic Programme that taking into consideration differences in accessing and applying technologies for mitigation and adaptation. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    13. Poznan Strategic Program on Technology Transfer • Consists of three funding windows • Technology needs assessments ($9m) • Technology transfer pilot projects ($40m) • Dissemination of technologies and practices ($1m) • Timeframe for implementation • Remainder of GEF-4 (FY2006-10) Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    14. Non-Technological Options • In addition to technological options, countries also identified policies, regulations, standards and codes • Awareness raising and education were identified as critical elements of the TNA • Non-technological options needed to create an environment conducive to the adoption of hard technologies Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    15. Earlier TNAs Conducted within the National Communications with add-on funding from the GEF: • UNDP assisted 78 countries between 2000 and 2003 • Reports available for 66 countries • UNEP assisted 14 countries • Reports available for 12 countries Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    16. Countries with TNA Reports Available Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    17. Examples of Technolgies Identified in the Early TNAs Renewable Energy Building-integrated photovoltaic power production Stationary fuel-cell power generation Residential Energy Efficiency Lighting and appliances District heating systems Industrial Energy Efficiency High efficiency industrial boilers Sustainable Urban Transport Traffic demand management Bus Rapid Transit Systems Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    18. Key Sectors Covered by TNA Reports Source: Synthesis report on technology needs identified by Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention, FCCC/SBSTA/2006/INF.1, 21 April 2006. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    19. Share of Mitigation Options by Sector Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    20. Share of Adaptation Options by Sectors Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    21. Current Situation of TT in Arab Region • Misunderstanding of TT Concept. • Absence of necessary financial resources to TNA for some of Arab Counties. • Lack of technological information. • Absence of enabling environments. • Lack of trust and coordination between governments, Private sectors and scientific research institutions. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    22. Some countries prepared the TNA. • There is a proposal to study the TNA in GCC, prepared by UNEP last month. • There are some initiatives in the region that work on technology transfer like “Masdar”. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    23. Cont’d Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    24. Energy-efficiency technologies and Arabian countries supported by the GEF Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    25. Renewable Energy Technologies and Arabian countries supported by the GEF Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    26. Low-GHG-emitting energy generatingtechnologies and countries supportedby the GEF Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    27. Transport sector technologiesand countries supported by the GEF Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    28. Barrier to TT in the Developing Countries • Policy frameworks. • Technology. • Awareness and information. • Business and delivery models. • Availability of financing. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    29. Barrier to TT in the Arab Region • Lack of access to information, • Market failures, • Absence of skilled human resources, • Weak institutional and legislative frameworks, • Social constraints. • High cost of technologies and difficulties represented in accessing finance and the weak capacity to mobilize private-sector capital. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    30. Conclusions and Recommendations • TNA is fundamental for the achievement of successful technology transfer. • Governments should play an important role in coordinating and guiding technology needs assessment among different stakeholders, and in creating other enabling environment for technology needs assessment. • TNA should be prepared at national & regional level. • Diversification of financial sources, local, regional and global to implement TNA. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    31. Establish a regional technology transfer centre • Develop legislative and institutional frameworks • Complete & update the TNAs • Develop technology road maps and national action plans. • Develop technology transfer frameworks/strategy • Enhance enabling environments to integrate technology transfer policies at the national levels. • Raising awareness on EST & TT. • Capacity-building in TT. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA

    32. Eng. Hussain Makki-NOGA