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ACG 4401 Chapter 2. XML & UBL. Extensible Markup Language - XML. Meta-Language A language that can be used to create others (vocabularies) Universal Business Language (UBL) Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) Application has sets of xml documents Instance Document .xml

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Extensible markup language xml
Extensible Markup Language - XML

  • Meta-Language

    • A language that can be used to create others (vocabularies)

      • Universal Business Language (UBL)

      • Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL)

  • Application has sets of xml documents

    • Instance Document .xml

      • contains the data (chapter 2 & Chapter 4)

    • Schema Document .xsd

      • Describes allowed structure (data types, element names) of instance document (chapter 3)

    • Stylesheet .xsl

      • Formatting instructions for data in the instance document (chapter 5)


  • A language used to create other languages

    • Vocabularies

  • Describes:

    • Rules &

    • Syntax

    • For Structuring Documents!

  • Does NOT describe tag names

Well formed vs valid
Well Formed vs. Valid

  • Well Formed documents

    • meet basic rules for XML (chapter 2)

  • Valid documents

    • Meets rules regarding structure, order and data-types as described in Schema (chapter 3)

Xml components
XML Components

  • Tags

    • Meta-data

      • description of data enclosed within brackets

      • <>, opening

      • </> closing

  • Element

    • Opening tag, data, and Closing tag

      • <instructor>Dr. Hornik</instructor>

    • Attribute

      • Data that adds meaning to the data adding meaning to the data 

        • Data describing the tag

        • <Instructor Campus=“Main”>Dr. Hornik</Instructor>

Xml element types
XML Element Types

  • Hierarchy

    • Parent/Complex

      • Does not enclose data

      • Encloses/Contains other elements

        • <Instructor>

          • <Name>Dr. Hornik</Name>

        • </Instructor>

      • Root Element

        • Encloses All other elements in Instance Document

    • Child/Simple

      • Encloses Data

        • <Name>Dr. Hornik</Name>



Xml rules a well formed document
XML Rules – A well formed document

  • The first line of an XML document must contain the prologue.

  • The main theme of the XML document – the root element - must enclose all the other elements in the document. There can be only one root element.

  • Every element must have an opening tag name<> and a closing tag name</> and they must match (case sensitive).

    • Documents can have empty elements.

Xml rules a well formed document1
XML Rules – A well formed document

  • Elements must be properly nested, that is you close the tag that was opened last – think of tags as using a LIFO convention or more properly a LOFC Last Opened First Closed convention (though it doesn’t have quite the same ring to it).

  • Elements can have attributes.

    • Attributes follow the opening tag name

      • attributeName=“attributeValue”

      • attributeName is not included in the closing tag

Prolog and comment
Prolog and Comment

  • Every XML document starts with a prolog

  • It lets the XML enabled processor know that this is an XML document to be processed

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

    • UCS Transformation Format—8-bit) is a variable-width encoding that can represent every character in the Unicode character set.

  • Comment

    <!– Hello World -->

Element hierarchy
Element Hierarchy

Root element











<description>Belmopan is the capital of Belize</description> <history>Belmopan was established following the devastation of the former capital ,Belize City, by Hurricane Hattie in 1965. High ground and open space influenced the choice and ground-breaking began in 1966. By 1970 most government offices and operations had already moved to the new location.




Parent element

Child Elements


Universal Business Language


  • Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS)

  • Complete XML based library of business documents

Reusable elements
Reusable Elements

  • When possible UBL uses the same structure for elements in different documents

  • PostalAddress can be used in:

    • Catalogue

    • Purchase Order

    • Invoice

      • So it has the same structure

      • <StreetName>Main St.</StreetName> <BuildingNumber>56A</BuildingNumber> <CityName>Newark</CityName> <PostalZone>19716</PostalZone> <CountrySubentityCode>DE</CountrySubentityCode>

      • <Country>

      • <IdentificationCode>USA</IdentificationCode>

      • </Country>

Ubl document rules
UBL document Rules

  • Each has a unique Root Element

  • Each has a required ID

    • Uniquely Identify document

  • Each has a required IssueDate

    • Determine when document is created

    • Optional IssueTime

  • Each has two Party elements

    • Provider/Supplier

    • Customer/Buyer

  • Each has at least one line element

    • CatalogueLine

    • OrderLine

Ubl order rules schema
UBL Order Rules (Schema)

  • UBL Schema’s

Root element
Root Element

  • UBL defines what the root element name is

  • <Order>

  • </Order>

Parent elements
Parent Elements

  • Parent elements contain or enclose other elements

  • Root (<Order> ) Parent of:

    • <ID>

    • <SalesOrderID>

    • <IssueDate>

    • <IssueTime>

    • <Note>

    • <AccountingCostCode>

    • <AccuntingCost>

    • <BuyerCustomerParty>

      • <Party>

        • <PartyName>

        • <PostalAddress>

    • <SellerSupplierParty>

      • <Party>

        • <PartyName>

        • <PostalAddress>

    • <OrderLine>

      • What are the Parent elements within this element?

Element attributes
Element Attributes

  • Attributes are contained within an opening element tag <>

  • attributeName=“attribute value”

    • Name-pair value

  • <PriceAmountcurrencyID="USD">575.55</PriceAmount>

  • <BaseQuantityunitCode="UNIT">1</BaseQuantity>

Ubl models
UBL Models

Processes Covered

Despatch advice shipping notice
Despatch Advice (Shipping Notice)

  • Sample Despatch Advice

Desptach advice rules
Desptach Advice Rules

Lets build an xml document
Lets Build an XML Document

  • Assume Customers place Pizza Order over phone

  • What data is captured with order?

    • Customer

      • Phone#

      • Name

      • Address

    • Order

      • Items

      • Delivery/Pickup

      • Total Amount

Creating xml instance document
Creating XML Instance Document

  • In-class/Windowsuse NotePad

  • Mac use TextWrangler

  • Youmustuse a Text Editor (not a word processor)

  • XML editor – Exchanger XML Lite (PC and Mac)

  • Testing XML

    • Open in Browser (IE, Firefox, Safari??)

    • If it opens it’s well formed

    • If you receive an error message it’s not