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ECET 581/CPET/ECET 499 Mobile Computing Technologies & Apps. Mobile Networking & Communication Infrastructures Lecture 2 Paul I-Hai Lin, Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne.

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Ecet 581 cpet ecet 499 mobile computing technologies apps
ECET 581/CPET/ECET 499Mobile Computing Technologies & Apps

Mobile Networking & Communication Infrastructures

Lecture 2

Paul I-Hai Lin, Professor

Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology

Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne


Mobile networking communication infrastructures
Mobile Networking & Communication Infrastructures

  • Wireless Mobile Networking: An Introduction

    • Infrastructure Network Topology

    • Ad Hoc Network Topology

  • Mobile Communication Infrastructures

    • 1G

    • 2G

    • 2.5G

    • 3G

    • Bluetooth, IrDA, IrFM, OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) Device Management


Cellular phone system
Cellular Phone System

  • List of Mobile Network Operators, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mobile_network_operators


Mobile network operators
Mobile Network Operators

  • T-Mobile (Germany)

    • GMS, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access)

  • Cingular (U.S.)

    • GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, HSDPA (TDMA)

  • Verizon (U.S.)

    • CDMA, CDMA2000 1x, EV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized data standard)

  • Sprint/Nextel (U.S.)

    • CDMA, CDMA2000 1x, EV-DO, iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network)


Wireless mobile networking
Wireless Mobile Networking

  • Infrastructure Network Topology

    • Fixed infrastructure with Wide Area Network coverage

    • Mobile ↔ Mobile devices

    • Mobile ↔ Fixed Computer Node

    • Mobile device ↔ Servers


Wireless mobile networking cont
Wireless Mobile Networking (cont.)

  • Infrastructure Network Topology (WAN Access)

    • Fiber-to-the-House, Cable Modem, DSL, Dial-up

    • Wireless Access Points/Routers

    • Wired Routers

    • LAN, WLAN, WiMAX


Wireless mobile networking cont1
Wireless Mobile Networking (cont.)

  • Ad Hoc Network Topology

    • Single-Hop Peer-to-Peer

    • Multi-hop Ad Hoc Network


Wireless mobile networking cont2
Wireless Mobile Networking (cont.)

  • Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Routing Protocols

    • RFC2501, RFC3561, RFC3626

    • RFC3684

  • MANET Charter, http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html,

    http://www3.ietf.org/proceedings/05mar/manet.html

  • MANET Internet Drafts, http://bgp.potaroo.net/ietf/html/ids-wg-manet.html,

    http://ietfreport.isoc.org/ids-wg-manet.html

  • National Institute of Standards, MANET Projects, http://w3.antd.nist.gov/wctg/manet/manet.html

  • OPNET – MANET Discrete Event Simulation, http://www.opnet.com/products/library/MANET.html


Mobile communication infrastructures
Mobile Communication Infrastructures

  • Mobile Communication Infrastructures

    • 1G Analog FM

    • 2G TDMA-FDMA/ CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

    • 2.5 G – extend 2G system by adding packet-switched connection

      • GPRS (General Packet Radio Service; for data packet service on GSM network)

      • EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Evolution, up to 384 Kbps)

      • Support WAP, search, directory services, etc

    • 3G


The mobile telephone system
The Mobile Telephone System

  • 1 G Mobile Phone

    • Analog voice

  • 2 Generation Mobile Phone

  • 2.5 G

  • 3 G

  • Reference: Wikepedia, the free encyclopedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_AMPS


1 st generation cellular phone system
1st Generation Cellular Phone System

  • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)

    • Invented by Bells Labs and first installed in the U.S. in 1982

    • Analog FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

    • ISM 800-MHz band

      • Base Station → Mobile Station: forward communication channels (824-849 MHz: 25 MHz band)

      • Base Station ← Mobile Station: reverse communication channels (869-894 MHz: 25 MHz band)

      • Voice channel – Frequency modulation (30 kHz)

      • Control Channels - FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) – 10 kbps/30 kHz signal

    • No of Channels

      • 832 channels: 25 MHz / 30 kHz, can be shared by two providers

      • Each provider: 416 channels in each cell , 21 channels for control, 395 channels for voice

  • Frequency Reuse Factor

    • Reuse factor 7

    • 1/7 of 395 traffic channels are available in a cell

  • In England – TACS

  • In Japan – MCS-L1


1 st generation cellular phone system1
1st Generation Cellular Phone System

  • Invented by Bells Labs and first installed in the U.S. in 1982

    • Analog FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

    • ISM 800-MHz band

      • Base Station → Mobile Station: forward communication channels (824-849 MHz: 25 MHz band)

      • Base Station ← Mobile Station: reverse communication channels (869-894 MHz: 25 MHz band)

      • Voice channel – 30 kHz subband, Frequency modulation

      • Control Channels - FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) – 10 kbps/30 kHz signal

    • No of Channels

      • 832 channels: 25 MHz / 30 kHz, can be shared by two providers

      • Each provider: 416 channels in each cell , 21 channels for control, 395 channels for voice

  • Frequency Reuse Factor

    • Reuse factor 7

    • 1/7 of 395 traffic channels are available in a cell

  • In England – TACS

  • In Japan – MCS-L1


2 nd generation cellular telephone system
2nd Generation Cellular Telephone System

  • D-AMPS (Digital AMPS)

    • IS-136

    • TDMA-FDMA

  • GMS (Global System for Mobile Communication)

    • TDMA-FDMA

  • IS-95 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

    • CDMA-FDMA


Digital advanced mobile telephone system d amts
Digital Advanced Mobile Telephone System (D-AMTS)

  • Cells – geographic regions

  • AMPS Cells – 10 to 20 km across

  • D-AMPS Cells – Smaller

  • Each cell uses some set of frequencies not used by any of its neighbors


D amps
D-AMPS

  • D-AMPS (Digital AMPS)

    • Backward compatible with AMPS: FDMA

    • IS-54 (Interim standard 54)

    • TDMA (Time Division Multiple Acceess)/IS-136

      • Added to each sub-band

      • Triple the no. of channels

    • ISM 800 MHz band

    • 824-849 MHz range: Base station → Cellular phone (forward channels)

    • 869-894 MHz range: Cellular phone →Base station (reverse channels)


D amps continue
D-AMPS (continue)

  • Voice Signal Digitization

    • Digitizing: PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) and compression

    • 3 kHz → PCM Digitized →7.95 kbps digital voice channel

  • TDMA

    • 1 slot – 7.95 kbps

    • 3 slots: 48.6 kbps digital data: 3 x 7.95 kbps

    • Combined using TDMA

    • TDMA Frame [ 1 2 3 1 2 3]


D amps continue1
D-AMPS (continue)

  • Digitized Voice Signal Transmission

    • 25 frames per second

    • 1944 bits per frame

    • Each frame last 40 ms (1/25) and is divided into 6 slots shared by three digital channels: TDMA [ 1 2 3 1 2 3]

    • Each channel: 2 slots

    • 324 bits per slot: 159 bits digitized voice, 64-bits control, 101-bits for error correction

  • QPSK Modulation (Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying)

    • 48.6 kbps → QPSK Modulation → 30 kHz analog signal

  • FDMA

    • 25 MHz band, 30 kHz analog signal

  • Reuse Factor 7


Ecet 581 1334572
GMS

  • GMS (Global System for Mobile Communication)

    • Digital mobile telephony system launched in Finland in 1991

    • TDMA, Digitize and compress data

    • 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band

    • SIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module)

    • Capture 82.4% of all global mobile connection

    • Widely used in Europe and Asia


Gms continue
GMS (continue)

  • Bands

    • 25 MHz band

    • 124 Channels of 200 kHz separated by guard bands

  • Transmission

    • Voice channel → Digitize + Compress → 13-kbps digital signal

    • 1 slot = 156.25 bit

    • 1 Frame (TDMA) = 8 slots; frame duration 120 ms

    • A Multi-frame = 26 frames (TDMA) = 270.8 kbps

    • 26 frames = 24 traffic frames + 2 control frames

    • 270.8 kbps → GMSK → 200 kHz signal (FDMA)

  • Reuse Factor 3


Is 95 cdma
IS-95 CDMA

  • Based on CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) and DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)

  • Wireless Communications, Chapter Network Concepts and Standards, IS95 CDMA Cellular Telephony, Springer, http://www.springerlink.com/content/g12q456568245556/

  • Bands and Channels

    • Duplex using two bands

    • ISM 800-MHz or ISM 900-MHz

    • 20 Channels of 1.228 MHz, guard bands

    • 10 channels for each provider

    • Can be used in parallel with AMPS

    • 1 IS-95 Channel = 41 AMPS channels (41 x 30 kHz = 1.23 MHz)


Is 95 cdma cont
IS-95 CDMA (cont.)

  • Base Channel Synchronization

    • Base stations use GPS (Global Positioning System)

  • Forward Transmission (base to mobile)

    • 64 Digital Channels (3 kHz each)

    • Voice 3 kHz → 9.6 kbps → Error-correcting & repeating bits → 19.2 kbps

    • Scrambling signal: ESN (Electronic Serial No of mobile station) + 242 pseudo random chip → Decimator (1 out of 64 bits)

    • 64 channels x 64 Walsh code → CDMA

    • 1.228 Mcps (Megachips per second) = 19.2 kbps * 64 cps

    • QPSK → 1.228 MHz

    • 25MHz Band: 20 Channels FDMA

    • Channel 0: Pilot Channel, sends [1, 1, 1, 1, …] for bit sync

    • Ch 1 – 7: paging, send messages to one or more mobile devices

    • Ch 8–31 and 33-63: voice traffic channels

    • Ch 32: give info about the system


Is 95 cdma cont1
IS-95 CDMA (cont.)

  • Reverse Transmission (Mobile to Base)

    • 3 kHz Voice → Digitizer → 9.6 kbps → Error correcting & repetition → 28.8 kbps → 6-symbol chuck, 0-64, Symbol Modification → 307.2 kbps = (28.8/6) x 64

    • ESN → Long Code Generator 42-bit → 1.228 Mcps

    • DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)

      • 94 Channels

      • 62 Traffic channels

      • 32 Base station access control channels

      • 1.28 Mcps → QPSK → 1.228 MHz

    • FDMA 20 channel x 1.228 MHz = 25 MHz


Is 95 cdma cont2
IS-95 CDMA (cont.)

  • Two Data Rate Sets

  • Frequency Reuse Factor

    • Interference from neighboring cells

    • Reuse factor 1

  • Soft Handoff

    • Every base station → Pilot channel broadcast

    • Enable a mobile station to do a soft handoff


Signal modulation techniques
Signal Modulation Techniques

  • Mobile Communication Infrastructures

    • 1G Analog FM (Carrier modulation), FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

    • 2G TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) + FDMA

  • Digital Wireless Transmission Techniques

    • Impulse transmission

      • Infrared Pulse Transmission

      • UWB (Ultra Wideband), impulse radio

    • TDMA Cellular

    • CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) - Spread Spectrum


Signal modulation techniques cont
Signal Modulation Techniques (cont.)

  • Analog Modulation

    • Frequency Modulation (FM)

  • Digital Frequency Modulation

    • Digital (0, 1) FM – Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

    • GMSK (Guaussian Minimum Shift Keying)

      • FSK modulation with minimal tone distance of 1/2T; T – the duration of transmitted data symbols

      • Data In → Gaussian Filter → FM modulator

      • Adopted by GMS


Signal modulation techniques cont1
Signal Modulation Techniques (cont.)

  • Digital Phase Modulation (PSK)

    • B-PSK (Binary Phase Modulation)

    • [0, 1] – (cos2π fc t + 0º), (cos2π fc t + 180º)


Signal modulation techniques cont2
Signal Modulation Techniques (cont.)

  • Digital Phase Modulation (PSK)

    • QPSK (Quadrature PSK, 4 Phases)

    • 11 – (cos2π fc t + 45º)

    • 01 - (cos2π fc t + 135º)

    • 00 – (cos2π fc t + 225º) or (cos2π fc t -135º)

    • 11 - (cos2π fc t + 315º) or (cos2π fc t - 45º)


Signal modulation techniques cont3
Signal Modulation Techniques (cont.)

  • π/4-QPSK – adopted by the North American TDMA digital cellular standard, IS-136

  • Two identical constellation – rotated by 45º or π/4 radians




Simo and mimo channels
SIMO and MIMO Channels

  • SIMO (Single Input Multiple Output) Radio Channel

    • Complex receiver with adaptive smart antenna with M antenna elements

  • MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) Radio Channel

    • N mobile antenna elements

    • M base station antenna elements


3rd generation technologies
3rd Generation Technologies

  • A Combination of Technologies

    • Audio and Video

    • VoIP

    • Still & Moving Images

    • Digital Data

    • UTMS (Unified Mobile Telephone Service)

      • Enhanced multimedia: movie, images, music Internet Surfing

      • Video telephony, Video conferencing

    • Always connected infrastructure


3rd generation technologies1
3rd Generation Technologies

  • IMT-2000 (Internet Mobile Communication 2000)

    • Voice quality (public telephone network)

    • Data rate

      • 144 kbps for access in a moving vehicle

      • 384 kbps for access as the user walks

      • 2 Mbps for stationary user (office or home)

    • Support packet-switched and circuit-switched data services

    • 2 GHz band

    • 2 MHz Bandwidth

    • Interface to Internet


3rd generation technologies2
3rd Generation Technologies

  • IMT-2000 Radio Interface

    • IMT-DS (Direct Sequence): CDMA

      • Wideband spread-spectrum, direct sequence CDMA

      • Compatible with the CDMA used in IS-95

    • IMT-MC (Multi-carrier): CDMA

      • CDMA 2000

      • New wideband (15-MHz) Spread Spectrum with narrow band (1.25 MHz) CDMA of I-95

    • IMT-TC (Time Code): CDMA & TDMA

    • IMT-SC (Single Carrier): TDMA

    • IMT-FT (Frequency time): TDMA & FDMA

  • CDMA2000

    • Code Division Multiple Access

    • Pioneered by Qualcomm