“Now the Watergate and Mr. Nixon are behind us, President Ford set himself to bind up the wounds that they inflicted. With malice toward none, with charity for all, we must cooperate in this honorable task.”- Henry Steel Commager
“Good old Jerry” • Ford was considered… • Unimaginative • Hardworking • Ordinary • Untouched by scandal • Inept • Open • Certainly not brilliant • Uninspiring
Energy Crisis • Raised energy costs, slowed economic productivity • Created inflation • Heating prices • Factories powered • Electricity prices • Shipping costs • Petrochemicals used for paint, plastics, fertilizers, etc. • Gasoline
Stagflation • Term to describe the twin evils of stagnant job growth and surging inflation. • 1974: 12% inflation (ideal is 1-2%, current is 3.8%) • Unemployment: 8.5% (9.1% today)
Ford’s Solution to Inflation • WIN (Whip Inflation Now) • Encouraged voluntary citizen action to curb inflation • Vegetable gardens, turn down their thermostats and carpool to cut down on energy use/restrain prices. • Ineffective, made a mockery as poorly planned gimmick
Ford Economic Actions: The First Flip Flopper? • First supported a modest tax increase to help stop inflation • Reversed his position, supported a tax cut to combat slow productivity • Signed Democratic spending bill, stimulated economy • Results: By 1976 unemployment down to 7%, inflation down to 4.8%, GDP growing
Carter Elected • Seen as a Washington outsider • Sought to lead with honesty and candor, by example, with a higher moral sense • He promised he would never lie to the American people.
“A Pack of Ravenous Wolves” • Congress which found the new president hard to deal with, Congress shot down Carter’s consumer-protection bill and labor reform package. • Carter responded by vetoing a public works packages • A pattern of mutual distrust and contempt had been set between Carter and Congress
Reliance on Foreign Oil • U.S. oil imports had shot up 65 percent annually since 1973. • In 1976 the nation was consuming one-quarter of all Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) production. The U.S. remained wasteful in energy use, • Consumption per capita 2.3 times the average for nations in the European Economic Community and 2.6 times Japan's.
Carter’s Energy Reforms, 1978 • The president got Congress to pass the Emergency Natural Gas Act, which would authorize the national government to allocate interstate natural gas. • Department of Energy to regulate existing energy suppliers and fund research on new sources of energy, particularly sustainable (wind and solar power) and ecologically sound sources. • Energy Security Act created the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation, which would provide $20 billion in joint ventures with private industry. • The deregulation of oil and natural gas prices that resulted would lead to a vast increase in the supply of energy in the 1980s, and consequently a lowering of prices.
Energy Reforms, 1980 • Automobile mileage standards improved • By April 1980, he had gotten much of his second energy package through, including a Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax (with revenues designated for the general Treasury but not for specific energy projects),
Received Little Credit • Energy program was complex, created public confusion • Public understood reality with energy prices and taxes going up • Carter worsened his image problem by giving the so-called "malaise" (French for illness) speech, in which he described a lack of confidence in America's purpose and its future. • Blamed the crisis of America's spirit on the American people themselves.
Carter’s Energy Success • Consumption of foreign oil down, from 48 % in 1976 to 40 percent in 1980, • Reduction of 1.8 million barrels a day. • Left office there were high inventories of oil and a surplus of natural gas, D • Delivered by a more efficient/rational distribution system. • Between 1980 and 1985, domestic production would up by 1 million barrels a day, • Imports of crude oil and petroleum products declined from 8.2 to 4.5 million barrels a day.
All in the Family • Program Disclaimer • The program you are about to see is All in the Family. It seeks to throw a humorous spotlight on our frailties, prejudices, and concerns. By making them a source of laughter we hope to show, in a mature fashion, just how absurd they are. • All in the Family was notorious for featuring language and authentic epithets previously absent from American television, such as "fag" and "fairy" for homosexual, "yid" and "hebe" and "that tribe" for Jews, "spic" for Hispanics, "mick" for Irish, "dago" and "wop" for Italians, "polak" for Polish, "chink" for Chinese, "Jap" for Japanese, "gook" for southeast Asian, and "spade", "spook", "jig", and "jungle bunnies" for blacks. In a few instances, "goddammit" was uttered. In the episode