Goals for Session. Define the role of data-based decision-making with the School-wide PBS approach. Propose features of Office Discipline Referral data that are most useful for decision-making in schools Provide guidelines for using data for team planning
Goals for Session • Define the role of data-based decision-making with the School-wide PBS approach. • Propose features of Office Discipline Referral data that are most useful for decision-making in schools • Provide guidelines for using data for team planning • Provide guidelines for using data for on-going problem solving • Apply guidelines to examples
Improving Decision-Making Solution Problem From Problem Solving Solution Problem To Information
Key features of data systems that work. • The data are accurate and valid • The data are very easy to collect (1% of staff time) • Data are presented in picture (graph) format • Data are current (no more than 48 hours old) • Data are used for decision-making • The data must be available when decisions need to be made (weekly?) • Difference between data needs at a school building versus data needs for a district • The people who collect the data must see the information used for decision-making.
Why Collect Discipline Information? • Decision making • What decisions do you make? • What data do you need to make these decisions? • Professional Accountability • Decisions made with data (information) are more likely to be (a) implemented, and (b) effective
What data to collect for decision-making? • USE WHAT YOU HAVE • Office Discipline Referrals/Detentions • Measure of overall environment. Referrals are affected by (a) student behavior, (b) staff behavior, (c) administrative context • An under-estimate of what is really happening • Office Referrals per Day per Month • Attendance • Suspensions/Expulsions • Vandalism
Office Discipline Referral Processes/Form • Coherent system in place to collect office discipline referral data • Faculty and staff agree on categories • Faculty and staff agree on process • Office Discipline Referral Form includes needed information • Name, date, time • Staff • Problem Behavior, maintaining function • Location Definitions Compatibility Checklist Referral Form p.10
What data are needed for effective decision making (The Big Five) • How Much: Office discipline referrals (ODR) • ODR per school day • ODR per school day per 100 students • What: ODR by type of problem behavior • Where: ODR by location • When: ODR by time of day • Who: ODR by student • Why: ODR by perceived motivation
Organizing Data for “active decision-making” • Counts are good, but not always useful • To compare across months use “average office discipline referrals per day per month”
Using Data for On-Going Problem Solving • Start with the decisions not the data • Use data in “decision layers” (Gilbert, 1978) • Is there a problem? (overall rate of ODR) • Localize the problem • (location, problem behavior, students, time of day) • Get specific • Use data to guide asking of “the right questions” • Don’t drown in the data • It’s “OK” to be doing well • Be efficient
Is there a problem? • Office Referrals per Day per Month • Attendance • Faculty Reports
Interpreting Office Referral Data:Is there a problem? • Absolute level (depending on size of school) • Middle, High Schools (> 1 per day per 100) • Elementary Schools (> 1 per day per 250) • Trends • Peaks before breaks? • Gradual increasing trend across year? • Compare levels to last year • Improvement?
Is there a problem? Middle school with 500 students (Dec)
Is there a problem? Middle School with 500 students
Is there a problem? Middle School with 500 students (Dec 04-05)
Is there a problem? Middle School with 500 students (Feb 3, 04-05)
What systems are problematic? • Referrals by problem behavior? • What problem behaviors are most common? • Referrals by location? • Are there specific problem locations? • Referrals by student? • Are there many students receiving referrals or only a small number of students with many referrals? • Referrals by time of day? • Are there specific times when problems occur?
Designing Solutions • If many students are making the same mistake it typically is the system that needs to change not the students. • Teach, monitor and reward before relying on punishment. • An example (hallways)
Summary • Transform data into “information” that is used for decision-making • Present data within a process of problem solving. • Use the trouble-shooting tree logic • Big Five first (how much, who, what, where, when) • Ensure the accuracy and timeliness of data.
Team Reports • ID next team meeting (Date and Time) 1. Team Leaders will notify Manuel firstname.lastname@example.org 410.545.0930 2. Team leader will arrange meeting and create agenda 3. Team Leader will attend next Baltimore City Team Leader Orientation meeting (Date TBA) • ID topic of next team meeting