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The Message . Chapter 5 . Semiotic Tradition . Semiotics of language Ferdinand de Saussure Modern founder of structure linguistics Language is arbitrary Structure approach of Language Forms Consist of speech, sounds, words, and grammar Language use is NOT arbitrary

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the message

The Message

Chapter 5

semiotic tradition
Semiotic Tradition
  • Semiotics of language
  • Ferdinand de Saussure
    • Modern founder of structure linguistics
    • Language is arbitrary
  • Structure approach of Language Forms
    • Consist of speech, sounds, words, and grammar
    • Language use is NOT arbitrary
    • Language needs meaning to represent something
understanding the structure
Understanding the Structure
  • Saussure
  • Key is difference in three areas
    • Sound
      • Letters sound different: p versus b
    • Word form differs
      • Pat versus Bat
    • Grammatical forms
      • Verb tenses change meaning
      • “has run” versus “will run”
language vs speech
Language vs. Speech
  • Language (langue)
    • Formal system of language used in communication
    • Can be analyzed apart from its use (grammatical etc)
    • Constant
  • Speech (parole)
    • The use of language to deliver a thought or accomplish a purpose
    • Flexible and changing
    • Linquistics = study of Language not speech
beyond semiotics
Beyond Semiotics
  • Linguistics not enough to understand human use of language
  • Two primary focus:
    • Generative grammar
      • Cognitive study of how rules impact spoken language
      • Chomsky
    • Discourse
      • Use of language in communication
      • Evaluates conversations, media productions, and speeches
nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfDWQG47pAQ

theories of nonverbal coding
Theories of Nonverbal Coding
  • Includes three dimensions:
    • Semantic
      • Meaning of signs
    • Syntactic
      • How signs are organized into system with other sign
    • Pragmatic
      • Effects or behavior created by signs
eight aspects of nonverbal communication
Eight aspects of Nonverbal Communication
  • Kinesics
  • Clothing and artifacts
  • Voice: Paralanguage
    • Pitch, volume, rate, nonfluencies, silence
  • Proxemics
eight aspects of nonverbal communication1
Eight Aspects of Nonverbal Communication
  • Colors
  • Chronemics
  • Touch: Haptics
  • Olfactics: Smell
kinesics
Kinesics
  • Ray Birdwhistell, Kinesics and Context, page 127
    • Seven assumptions used for his theory of body language
    • Cultural Gaffes
proxemics
Proxemics
  • Edward Hall
  • Three types of space
    • Fixed-featured space
      • Unmovable things
    • Semi-fixed feature
      • Movable objects
    • Informal Space
      • Personal territory between people
        • Intimate, Personal, Social & public
proxemics and culture
Proxemics and Culture

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gscRJhDNVmI

theoretical approaches to understanding the message
Theoretical Approaches to Understanding the Message
  • Speech Act Theory
  • Action Assembly Theory
  • Message Design Models
speech act theory
Speech Act Theory
  • “ I will pay you back”
    • Accomplishes the following:
      • Utterance Act
      • Propositional Act
      • Illocutionary Act
      • Perlocutionary Act
slide16

Two types of rules with Illocution force

    • Constitutive rules
      • Used to tell how to interpret statement
      • Creates framework for understanding
    • Regulatory Rules
      • Tell how to use speech to accomplish a goal
action assembly theory
Action-Assembly Theory
  • John Greene
  • Evaluates how we organize knowledge to form messages
  • Uses two types of knowledge
    • Content Knowledge
      • Knowledge about things, or events in speech
    • Procedural Knowledge
      • Knowledge about how to do things
      • Takes center stage in theory
      • Process of associating common actions becomes procedural record
slide18

John, How are you?

Fine, Mary, how are you?

message design models
Message Design Models
  • Planning Theory
    • Charles Berger
    • Explain the processes people use to plan communication behavior
    • Communication Plans
      • Mental images of steps used to accomplish a goal