The Rise of Dictators. RUSSIA: Joseph Stalin SPAIN: Francisco Franco ITALY: Benito Mussolini JAPAN: Emperor Hirohito/General Tojo GERMANY: Adolf Hitler Three of these men joined to rule the world!. World War II the Rise of Dictators. The Original Gangstas…. Adolf Hitler.
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The Rise of Dictators • RUSSIA: Joseph Stalin • SPAIN: Francisco Franco • ITALY: Benito Mussolini • JAPAN: EmperorHirohito/General Tojo • GERMANY: Adolf Hitler • Three of these men joined to rule the world!
World War II the Rise of Dictators The Original Gangstas….
Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin Hideki Tojo How did he take power? How did he take power? How did he take power? How did he take power? What were his beliefs? What were his beliefs? What were his beliefs? What were his beliefs? How did he effect world politics? How did he effect world politics? How did he effect world politics? How did he effect world politics? What was his lasting impact? What was his lasting impact? What was his lasting impact? What was his lasting impact? Militarism Militarism Militarism Militarism Main Slide
Adolf Hitler - How did he take power? 1923 - Hitler attempted to take control of a struggling Germany through the “Beer Hall Putsch.” He failed and was arrested. In jail he wrote “Mein Kampf” exposing his political ideology. He was considered harmless and was released in 1924. 1932 - Defeated von Hindenburg in national election. Hitler was the Chancellor of Germany. 1934 - Hitler declares himself the “Fuhrer of Germany taking dictatorial power. 1938 - Anschluss with Austria (Outlawed by Treaty of Versailles 1939 - Invasion of Poland and start of WWII Picture taken from www.wikipedia.org German propaganda Hitler as a young soldier in WWI Back
Adolf Hitler - Beliefs Hitler believed the Treaty of Versailles was a result of German leaders betraying the German people. He thought Germany would, one day, have a reemergence as a world power. Click here to view the goals of the Third Reich Picture taken from http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/sgt_stryker/hitler.gif Back
Adolf Hitler - Effect on world politics Hitler had an immediate and direct impact on politicians around the world. Some admired his beliefs and convictions, others saw a dangerous man who would, one day, have a direct impact on the death of 52 million people. Allied leaders in Europe made an attempt to appease Hitler in 1938 when they signed the Munich Agreement. Click here to view a brief description of the Munich Pact. Picture Taken from www.time.com Picture Taken from en.wikipedia.org Back
Adolf Hitler - Lasting Impact The name Adolf Hitler is, today, synonymous with hate and genocide. The war he helped to start is the bloodiest war in human history. There are, unfortunately, still people today who follow the principles of Nazism. The German people are still haunted by the actions of the Nazi government. Back
Adolf Hitler and Militarism Above all else, Hitler believed in the military superiority of the German empire. His fighting techniques, such as blitzkrieg, threatened to overthrow Europe in only a year. Back Picture taken from www.malispina.com
Benito Mussolini - How did he take power? 1921 - Entered Parliament after having been defeated in 1919 1922 - Became premier of Italy 1925 - Mussolini declared Italy a fascist dictatorship and took control over society, politics, and economics, as well as the military. Back Picture taken from http://cidc.library.cornell.edu/dof/italy/captioned/horse.htm
Benito Mussolini - Beliefs Mussolini was in favor of state control of economics, society, and that the political system should be in the hands of few. He was opposed to Communism and was very Militaristic. He directly influenced Hitler and the Nazi’s. Back Back Picture taken from http://www.comandosupremo.com/Mussolini.html
Benito Mussolini - Effect on world politics. Possibly Mussolini’s most direct and lasting impact was not in Italy, but his influence on Hitler and Nazism. He created the first Fascist government and was allied with Germany throughout WWII. Picture taken from http://www.comandosupremo.com/Mussolini.html Picture taken from http://members.telering.at/pat/muss.jpg Back
Benito Mussolini - Lasting Impact • Known as Il Duce- “the Chief” • Italian Imperialism -Moves to remake Roman Empire (Restore Rome to time of Caesars) -Make the Mediterranean an “Italian Lake” • Same government controls of everything as in Germany -Hailed by the people because he “Made the trains run on time” Picture taken from http://home.comcast.net/~lowe9101/mussolini/ Back
Benito Mussolini and Militarism The Italian army was not known for being a preeminent power during WWII. The Nazi German Empire was forced to defend Italy against Allied advances. Mussolini did, however, extend the Italian empire, especially into Africa. Picture taken from http://home.comcast.net/~lowe9101/mussolini/ Back
Joseph Stalin - How did he take power? After the death of the first Communist dictator in the Soviet Union, Vladimir Lenin, there was a power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky. Stalin won out and immediately set out to diminish any struggle for power. He further abolished all opposition and sent political prisoners to “re-education” camps. By 1928 Stalin was undoubtedly the leader of the Soviet Union. Picture taken from en.wikipedia.org Stalin Trotsky Bukharin Back
Joseph Stalin - Beliefs • Five Year Plans - Goals for the Communist state (industrial - economic) • Collectivization of Agriculture • Increase Soviet knowledge in the sciences (Space Race after WWII) • Believed in military superiority over the United States (build- up of nuclear weapons) Picture taken from en.wikipedia.org Click here to read a biographical sketch (timeline included) of Stalin Back
Joseph Stalin - Effect on world politics Picture taken from en.wikipedia.org The effect of Stalin on world politics is virtually impossible to overstate. He led the Soviet Union through domestic instability (not always well) while fighting against Hitler in WWII, the United States in the Cold War, and trying to gain alliances with developing countries throughout the world. The United States essentially based its foreign policy around that of the Soviet Union, and vice-versa, for 50 years. Back
Joseph Stalin - Lasting Impact The lasting impact of Stalin is one of controversy. Millions of men and women died under his rule of an steel fist. He led the Soviet Union until his death in 1953. He left the United States and Soviet Union embroiled in a battle for world supremacy which would last until 1991. Click here to view a biographical perspective on Joseph Stalin. Back Picture taken from http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/stalin/
Joseph Stalin and Militarism Stalin believed in having a large military. When the Soviet Union was invaded by Nazi Germany in June of 1941 Stalin started a build-up of the Soviet army which would last for several decades. Back
Emperor Hirohito and General Hediki Tojo Shoooooot yo! I am the brains behind the operations… remember Pearl Harbor, yo? Country: • Japan I am the Emperor! I hold all the power! Really….I make all the decisions… for REAL, for real.. General Hideki Tojo Emperor Hirohito
Hideki Tojo - How did he take power? 1920’s - Tojo works his way up the military ladder in Japan. 1930’s - Led troops in battle in China 1940 - Appointed War Minister 1941 - Emperor Hirohito elevates Tojo to the post of Prime Minister Click here to see a history of Japan Back
Hideki Tojo - Beliefs Tojo believed in the Racial Superiority of the Japanese people, especially over the Chinese. He was also ultra-nationalistic as well as very militaristic. He wanted to expand the Japanese empire throughout the Pacific Rim. Picture taken from http://www.bibl.u-szeged.hu/bibl/mil/ww2/who/tojo.html Back
Hideki Tojo - Effect on world politics When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Tojo became public enemy number one in the United States. Throughout his tenure as Prime Minister he increased alliances with the Axis powers in Europe and extended military control over Japanese Society and the Pacific Rim. Tojo was executed for war crimes in 1948. Picture taken from www.trumanlibrary.org Click here to see Japanese Military Expansion Back
Hideki Tojo - Lasting Impact Hideki Tojo is, today, known as a man who led the Japanese into WWII against the United States. He is credited for increasing Japanese military, industrial, and imperialistic capacity, but also saw the end of Japanese society as it was known before 1945. Picture taken from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWtojo.htm Back
Hideki Tojo and Militarism Tojo and the Japanese military commanders believed Japan to be invincible. For hundreds of years the Japanese mainland was not successfully invaded. Japan extended its empire throughout the Pacific Rim and had visions of going quite a bit farther. Click here to view see the Pacific Theater of WWII. Back
The Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan • Hitler, Mussolini, and Hirohito formed an alliance to conquer the world. • Germany continued to consume Europe. • Mussolini led Italian forces to take over Africa. • Hirohito led Japanese forces to overcome Asia.
The Allied Forces:Great Britain, France, USA, and Soviet Union • The world could no longer ignore the danger. • Great Britain, lead by Prime Minister William Chamberlain, joined the war to help France. • The United States, led by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, pledged supplies and support for the Allies but worked to stay out of the war. • The Soviet Union agreed to stay out of the war as long as Germany left them alone.
Japan Dominates Asia • Geography of Japan • Democratic reforms fall apart in Japan • Militarists take control of Japanese nation • Japan invades Manchuria • Japan invades China
JAPAN IS WAY OVER HERE NEXT TO CHINA
Japan’s Democracy Reforms Fails in the 1920’s • 1922 Japan signs peace treaty with China—sign of respect • 1928 Japan signs Kellogg-Briand Act; renouncing war • Creates a more parliamentary gov.—people have more say “Democracy won’t work here,” says Tojo!
Military takes control of Japan • Great Depression hits Japan; lose faith Democracy • Military leaders want Emperor to gain ALL power back (Absolute Rule) • Japan’s military leaders plan expansion throughout Asia
Japan’s New Empire: Imperializes China • Invasion of Manchuria 1931: - Heavy industry—many factories there - Japan wanted more factories for military - Democracies ask Japan to leave…they ignore the request
Japan Invades China • 1937 Japan invades • China quickly falls to stronger Japan • City of Nanjing is destroyed; citizens raped, tortured and killed
Japan seeks to dominate all Pacific • December 7, 1941 Japan surprises USA by attacking in Hawaii • 2,400 American’s killed • Roosevelt: “A day which will live in infamy.”
The war in the pacific was for all of the little islands—they had many resources! America Japan Hawaii Islands
Philippines Philippines is south of Japan Japan is up here!
Bataan Death March • Japan takes the Philippines • They stormed the capital city of Burma • Take everyone prisoner, including • 75,000 American prisoner and march them to camps; 10,000 died
America Strikes Back!~Battle of Midway~ • Admiral Nimitz from USA led forces in the Pacific • Japanese naval fleet largest in world history! • USA outnumbered 4 to 1 • America wins with strategy!