hemlock woolly adelgid resistance e preisser b maynard r casagrande n.
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Hemlock woolly adelgid resistance E. Preisser, B. Maynard, R. Casagrande. No reported resistance in Tsuga canadensis or T. caroliniana. Western hemlock. W. hemlocks resist eastern HWA and E. hemlocks resist western HWA. Mountain hemlock. Difficult to grow in northeast.

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hemlock woolly adelgid resistance e preisser b maynard r casagrande
Hemlock woolly adelgid resistanceE. Preisser, B. Maynard, R. Casagrande

No reported resistance in Tsuga canadensis or T. caroliniana

western hemlock
Western hemlock

W. hemlocks resist eastern HWA

and E. hemlocks resist western HWA

mountain hemlock
Mountain hemlock

Difficult to grow in northeast

slide4

Chinese and Japanese hemlocks are HWA-resistant

(But poor choice for landscape or forest)

are some eastern hemlocks resistant to hwa
Todd Caswell

Richard Casagrande

Laura Ingwell

Brian Maynard

Evan Preisser

Laura Radville

Are some eastern hemlocks resistant to HWA?
potentially resistant hemlock
In FOREST stands with ≥95% mortality

Mature (>10 m) trees

Appeared relatively healthy

largely free of HWA

and elongate hemlock scale

INNATE OR ENVIRONMENTAL?

“Potentially resistant hemlock”
evaluating hemlock resistance
Propagate cuttings

Grow under identical conditions

Infest with HWA under controlled conditions

Evaluating hemlock resistance
2007 rooting results
2007 rooting results

Treatment 0 = ControlTreatment 1 = 1:1 ratio of Dip ‘n Grow to water Treatment 2 = 1:2 ratio of Dip ‘n Grow to water

2007 sample sites 100 cuttings each from
2007 sample sites100 cuttings each from
  • 6 CT Trees
  • 5 NJ Trees (Mark Mayer)
  • 2 PA Trees (Scott Stitzer)
  • 1 MD Tree (Dave Mausel)
  • 4 Control Sites (MA, NY)

18 Trees (1800 cuttings)

2007 rooted cuttings held for testing in spring 2009
2007 rooted cuttingsheld for testing in spring 2009
  • Allow additional time to recover from rooting and outgrow field environmental effects
  • Provide 12 months of growth under standardized conditions
  • Improve timing of plant growth and HWA inoculation
hwa inoculation tests 2009
HWA inoculation tests – 2009
  • Inoculate all rooted cuttings with HWA in early spring
  • 3 groups: control, resistant, and cuttings from western hemlocks
  • Assessed HWA settlement and survival
2010 hwa inoculation results
2010 HWA inoculation results

6

4

HWA crawlers/cm)

2

0

Resistant

Control

progress towards providing nurseries with plants
Progress towards providing nurseries with plants
  • Planning third large-scale test of HWA resistance in spring 2011
  • Carried out large-scale grafting experiment in 2010 – results in summer 2011
  • Set up ‘hemlock hedge’ of resistant trees for cuttings and assessment of growth form and HWA resistance