Required Media/Equipment/Software: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health & Disease, 11th Edition, Barbara Cohen, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, ISBN 9780781790734f Study Guide For Memmler’s The Human Body in Health & Disease, 11th Edition, Barbara Cohen, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, ISBN 9780781765817 Mosby’s Pocket Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, & Health Professions, 6th Edition, Elsevier/Mosby, 2010, ISBN 9780323052917
Grading and Evaluation: Final Grades will be determined by: Grading Scale: Class Participation 10% 90-100% A Homework/Assignments 20% 80-89% B Quizzes 20% 70-79% C Examinations 30% 00-69% F Projects 20% Total 100%
Memmler’sThe Human Body in Health and Disease11th edition Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Organization of the Human Body
The study of the human body • Anatomy – The study of the structure of the body • Physiology – The study of the function of the body • Understanding the normal body is basis for analyzing disease • Pathology – The study of disease processes in the human body
Protection, support, and movement Integumentary (skin) Skeletal Muscular Coordination and control Nervous Endocrine Circulation Cardiovascular Lymphatic (immune) Nutrition and fluid balance Respiratory Digestive Urinary Production of offspring Reproductive 11 Body Systems
Checkpoint 1-1: In studying the human body, one may concentrate on its structure or function. What are these two studies called?
Integumentary System • Structure: - Includes skin, hair, nails, sebaceous (lubricating) and sweat glands • 2 layers – dermis & epidermis • 3rd layer - hypodermis • Function: • insulates, protects, temperature regulation, water regulation
Skeletal System • Structure: • Composed of bones, cartilage, joints • Function: • provides support/body framework • act as levers for movement • manufactures blood cells in red bone marrow • yellow marrow stores fat
Muscular System • Structure: • Consists of muscle fibers are arranged in bundles(fasciae), tendon sheaths, and bursae • Functions: • Skeletal (Voluntary): creates and limits movement • Smooth (Involuntary): moves food along the digestive tract, circulates blood • Cardiac: involuntary and causes heart contraction
Nervous System • Structure: • Composed of Brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves • Function: - controls and regulates all other systems of the body: receives internal and external stimuli from receptors & special senses, interprets stimuli and directs body’s response
Endocrine System • Glands produce hormones that regulate body activities such as growth and reproduction • Works with the nervous system through the hypothalamus of the brain to control and coordinate other body systems.
Cardiovascular System • Structure: • Consists of heart, arteries, veins, capillaries • Function • Circulates blood to and from the cells of the body
Lymphatic System • Structure: • Lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus gland, spleen, lymphatic vessels • Function: • Drains tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluid • Absorbs fats from the intestines and carries them to the blood • Protects the body from disease
Respiratory System • Structure: • Consists of nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs • Function • Brings oxygen to and eliminates carbon dioxide from the blood
Digestive System • Structure: • Consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, liver and pancreas • Function: • Absorbs nutrients from food and eliminates indigestible wastes
Urinary System • Structure: • Two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and urethra • Function: • Rids the body of waste products and excess water
Reproductive System • Women – ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina • Men – testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, urethra • Allows for the process of conception, pregnancy and birth
Metabolism • Metabolism includes all life sustaining reactions that go on in the body • Consists two types of activities: • Catabolism – complex substances broken down into simpler compounds to deliver energy • Anabolism – the building phase of metabolism (for growth, tissue repair, function) • ATP – adenosine triphosphate - energy unit the body uses
Homeostasis • Maintenance of the internal environment of the body • Body temperature, body fluids, heart rate, blood pressure, etc must be kept within set limits to maintain health This steady state within the organism is called Homeostasis • Homeostasis is maintained through balance of intracellular and extra cellular fluids and a series of feedback loops
Fluid balance • Extracellular fluid: • Transport nutrients into and out of the cell • It includes all body fluids outside the cells • Example: blood, interstitial fluid • Intracellular fluid: • Contained within the cell
Feedback • Is a control system based on information returned to the source • Negative Feedback Loop – most body systems are regulated this way • An action causes the body to reverse the trend of that action • Examples include temperature regulation: Body temperature rises, alerting the brain, causing sweating and other cooling mechanisms • Positive Feedback Loop • An action produces more of the same action • Examples include childbirth: stretching the uterus causes contraction of the uterus causes stretching…
Basic Reference Systems of Bodily Organization • Directions • Planes • Body Cavities
Directions • Superior • Inferior • Anterior (ventral) • Posterior (dorsal) • Cephalad (Cranial) • Medial • Lateral • Proximal • Distal •What is the scientific name for the position in which this subject is standing?
Planes • Median (midsagittal) plane – divides body down the middle into left and right halves • Sagittal – any plane parallel to the midsagittal plane – SIDEWAYS • Horizontal (transverse) plane – divides the body into top and bottom halves • Frontal (coronal) plane – divides the body into front and back halves • Longitudinal section – cut long ways • Transverse section – cut across the middle
•Which plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts? •Which plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts?
Tissue Sections • Cross section • Longitudinal (transverse) section • Oblique section
Cavities • Dorsal Cavity: contains organs of the nervous system • Cranial Cavity • Spinal cavity • Ventral Cavity: contains organs involved in maintaining homeostasis • Thoracic cavity • Abdominopelvic cavity
Definitions • Viscera – any organ • Peritoneum – membrane lining of the abdominal cavity and abdominal organs • Parietal – walls of a cavity • Visceral – referring to an organ • Interstitial fluid – the fluid between cells