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MOTIVATION AND MENTAL PREPARATION
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  1. FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION AND PERFORMANCE MOTIVATION AND MENTAL PREPARATION Physical Education Department

  2. MOTIVATION AND MENTAL PREPARATION Physical Education Department

  3. MENTAL PREPARATION Physical Education Department

  4. MENTAL REHEARSAL • Mental imagery is the ability to picture what a skill should look like when performed well • Used in preparation for big competitions where performers picture specific skills or key aspects of the performance ie – a long putt in golf. • Helps to build up a performer's confidence Physical Education Department

  5. RELAXATION • The mind and the body are very closely linked • Relaxation should involve both physical and mental relaxation • Physical relaxation - utilises massage and manipulation techniques to reduce muscular tension Physical Education Department

  6. RELAXATION Mental relaxation - is achieved in different ways: • Playing calming music • Meditation • Quiet talking with a friend/coach • Going for a walk • The term 'self-talk' is used to describe the performer going through a prepared routine both prior and during competition Physical Education Department

  7. FOCUSING • Closely related to mental rehearsal • This involves focusing on the key points of a technique and key tactical ideas • Performer should be free from distractions Physical Education Department

  8. WHAT IS MOTIVATION? • Motivation is the desire to perform well. Motivation • Motivation can be different depending on a person’s goal – example – Olympic athlete going for gold. - Someone wanting too keep fit. Physical Education Department

  9. TYPES OF MOTIVATION Two types of motivation:- EXTRINSIC INTRINSIC Physical Education Department

  10. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION This comes from outside our own personal drives and involves: • Winning cups, trophies and medals • High salaries and prize money • Personal glory, fame and status • Also parents, coaches, teachers and the crowd can give extrinsic motivation Physical Education Department

  11. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION This is self motivation and involves: • A desire to participate for own personal reasons • A desire to participate for fun and fitness • Enjoying playing with friends or part of a team • Normally associated with people not competing at a high level Physical Education Department

  12. AROUSAL • This is a state of readiness in a performer • Motivation is an effective way of stimulating arousal • Coaches/captains 'psyching up' team before match • Cup finals, prize money, media contracts are guaranteed to raise arousal levels Physical Education Department

  13. OVER-AROUSAL Some problems are too easily aroused - this can cause problems • Footballers being over aggressive and being sent off • Cricketers trying to hit ball too hard • Rugby players make high tackle • Mistakes, wrong decisions will be made as the performer will not be thinking clearly Physical Education Department

  14. Arousal Levels in Sport • Arousal levels are important in sport. Too little arousal causes the level of involvement to be low; too much could cause control of behaviour to be lost. Research shows that there is an optimum level which produces best performance. The link between arousal and performance is explained using the Inverted – U Theory. Physical Education Department

  15. In some sports, an optimum arousal level is important at the very start, and some sports need higher arousal levels than others: • Long jumper raises arousal level before the run up eg encouraging crowd to clap • Golfer putting a ball will benefit from lower arousal than a weight lifter Physical Education Department

  16. Inverted U Theory As arousal increases , so does performance, but only up to a certain level. Further increases in arousal cause a decrease in performance Performance Arousal Physical Education Department

  17. Complex skill Simple skill Performance Arousal Both curves show that as arousal increases so does performance. In each case too much arousal causes a decrease in performance. A complex skill needs less arousal for optimum performance Physical Education Department

  18. GOAL SETTING • Process by which achievable goals are set to improve performance • The acronym ‘SMARTER’ is useful when setting goals Physical Education Department

  19. SMARTER • SPECIFIC • MEASURABLE • ACCEPTED • REALISTIC • TIME RELATED • EXCITING • RECORDED Physical Education Department

  20. SMARTER • SPECIFIC • Goals must be clear and precise • MEASURABLE • There should be a standard against which progress can be measured • ACCEPTED • The goal is agreed by performer and coach • REALISTIC • Goals or targets must be realistically achievable Physical Education Department

  21. SMARTER • TIME-RELATED • A specific time span gives added focus • EXCITING • Motivating and interesting • RECORDED • Progress should be measured and recorded TASK IN THE BOOKLET: CHOOSING YOUR OWN ACTIVITY AND USE THE SMARTER SYSTEM TO SET ACHIEVABLE GOALS Physical Education Department

  22. TYPES OF GOAL PROCESS GOALS • Usually relate to an aspect of performance • Might be a specific technique or skill or adjustments to a tactical approach • A sprinter who is slow out of the blocks might set a process goal related to improving acceleration Physical Education Department

  23. TYPES OF GOAL TARGET GOALS • Target goals identify specific targets in overall performance • A runner wanting to improve a PB by a specific amount • (PROCESS AND TARGET GOALS CAN BE RELATED – IN ORDER TO IMPROVE PB – THE PARTICIPANT HAS TO WORK ON THEIR TECHNIQUE TO ACHIEVE GOAL) Physical Education Department