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4-1 Introduction to the Cell. Important events in the discovery of the cell and the development of the cell theory…. 1665 – Robert Hooke. Observed cells in cork. Coined the term "cells”. Cork Cells. 1673- Anton van Leeuwenhoek. Created a powerful microscope. 1827-33 - Robert Brown.

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important events in the discovery of the cell and the development of the cell theory
Important events in the discovery of the cell and the development of the cell theory…..
1665 robert hooke
1665 – Robert Hooke

Observed cells in cork.

Coined the term "cells”.

Cork Cells

1673 anton van leeuwenhoek
1673- Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Created a powerful microscope

1827 33 robert brown
1827-33 - Robert Brown

-noticed that pollen grains in water jiggled around called “Brownian motion”

-discovered the nucleus

Nucleus

Human Cheek Cell

1838 matthias schleiden
1838 - Matthias Schleiden

A botanist who concluded that all plants are made of cells.

Typical Plant Cell

1839 theodor schwann
1839 - Theodor Schwann

A zoologist who concluded that all animals

are made of cells.

Nerve Cells

1855 rudolph virchow
1855 - Rudolph Virchow

A physician who did

research on cancer cells and concluded

“Omnis cellula e cellula”.

“All cells are from other

pre-existing cells.”

the cell theory
The Cell Theory

1. All living things are composed of one or more cells.

2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism.

3. Cells come only from existing cells.

cells are diverse
Cells are Diverse…

both in size, shape, and internal organization.

why are cells so small
Why Are Cells So Small?
  • Transport- Cell volume to surface area ratios favor small size.
  • Control- Nucleus to cytoplasm consideration.
  • Metabolic requirements-

……..we’ll come back to this later.

how small can a cell be
How small can a cell be?

Mycoplasmas - bacteria that are 0.1 to 1.0 mm. (1/10 the size of regular bacteria).

Note: 1.0 mm = one millionth of a meter

all cells have
All cells have……
  • Plasma (cell) Membrane
  • Nucleus (eukaryotes only)
  • Cytoplasm (an area)
  • Organelles (structures with

specialized functions)

cell types
Cell Types

Prokaryotes- simple cells that do not have internal membranes

example = bacteria

Eukaryotes- more complex cells that do have internal, membrane-bound structures

examples = plants and animals

slide15

Timeline

Prokaryotic

Organisms:

First appeared 3.5 BYA

include bacteria

and cyanobacteria

Eukaryotic Organisms:

First appeared 2.0 BYA

include protists, fungi, plants and animals

slide16

Key Differences:

Eukaryotes

  • Have a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures.
  • Have large ribosomes
  • DNA is organized into chromosomes
  • Flagella are made of microtubules and have a 9+2 structure
  • Cell walls are made of cellulose
  • Prokaryotes
  • Lack a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures.
  • Have small ribosomes
  • DNA is not organized into chromosomes
  • Flagella are not made of microtubules and does not have a 9+2 structure
  • Cell walls are made of peptidoglycan, not cellulose
examples
Examples

Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

Nucleus

slide18

Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic