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Report Writing. Report Writing. Report Writing----Involves a Process which Produces a Written Document Raises Questions: How To Write? No Fixed Answer: General Suggestions. Theory VS Practice. Theory VS Practice---General Debate Both Are Inter-Related

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Report writing1
Report Writing

  • Report Writing----Involves a Process which Produces a Written Document

  • Raises Questions: How To Write?

  • No Fixed Answer: General Suggestions

Theory vs practice
Theory VS Practice

  • Theory VS Practice---General Debate

  • Both Are Inter-Related

  • How to Write? Learn By Writing---Cannot Avoid

  • How To Write? Some Suggestions, Tips, Right Steps

  • Helpful---Efficiency in Academic Research

Research proposal
Research Proposal

  • Writing Begins with Research Proposal

  • Critical---Brings Clarity in Ideas, Issues,

    Scope and Organization of Study

  • Writing Report: About Central Ideas, Issues, Areas of Concern

  • Discussion of RP: Sort out Practical Issues


  • Examples:

  • The objective of this study is to explain the fall of ethno-national movements in Pakistan

  • The purpose of this paper is to study the role of the state in economic development in South Asia in the post-cold war period

  • Other Terms: Problem Definition, Problem Statement


  • Why to Study This Issue: Make A Claim

  • Theoretical Significance

  • Practical Significance

Literature review
Literature Review

  • Claim and Proof Question

  • Proof Of Your Claim---Gap in the Literature

Overview of argument
Overview of Argument

  • Argument (Hypothesis)

  • Theoretical Argument

  • Empirical Argument


  • How will you prove your hypothesis?

  • How will you test your hypothesis?


  • Parts of the study, Content?

  • The way they are organized

  • Linkage Between Parts

Definitional issues part of research report
Definitional IssuesPart of Research Report

  • Theme: Broad Idea, Broad Area under Discussion, Subject Matter of Conversation

  • Theme of A Conference: Stability in South Asia

  • Rise of Terrorist Movements in South Asia

  • Political Stability and Foreign Investment in Pakistan

  • Theme of Book: Clash of Civilization

Definitional issues
Definitional Issues

  • Central Thesis?

  • Example: Stability (or other public goods such as peace, open seas, international trade, etc.) is provided by hegemons because they benefit most from it.

  • Thesis: Idea, Hypothesis, Argument, Main Point

  • Argument: Not only hypothesis, idea but also elaboration of mechanisms through which this occurs


  • Example: The globalization is so powerful that it is changing local culture in developing countries

  • The attack on video shops in Pakistan is an expression of the resistance of the local culture against the global culture.

  • Ideas, Hypotheses, Concepts, Phenomena

Thesis statement
Thesis Statement

1. A Short Statement of the Thesis---One or Two Sentences

2. A Statement Which Presents Brief Argument to Reader

  • A Theoretical Premise to be Proven

  • A (Theoretical) Position ( or Claim you Make) on the Subject

  • A Statement which Identifies the Purpose and Previews Main Ideas and Argument of the Study

  • A Guide (Roadmap) for Reader

Report writing general guidelines
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Why Report Writing? Sharing Results, Building Knowledge

  • Thinking As Early As Possible

  • Preserve Notes, Data

Report writing general guidelines1
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Original Research Question? Central Issue?

  • Unit of Analysis---Ecological Fallacy

  • Be Clear about Findings and Conclusions

  • Data Evaluation, Interpretation, Conclusions

Report writing general guidelines2
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Many Parts of Report---Organization Thoughts Important

  • Pre-Writing Stage: Arrange Notes, Outline (Main Ideas, Contents of Parts)

  • Composing (First Draft---Free Writing, Complete Report

  • Rewriting---Improvements, Discussion, Coherence, Errors, Citations, etc.

Report writing general guidelines3
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Parts of Report---Organization

  • Introduction: Objective (Problem Identification, Reason for Research, Research Questions, Brief Argument, Description of Procedures)

  • Discussion of Data, Material----Different Areas, Linkages, Relationships, Conclusions (Chapters, Sections, Headings, Subheadings)

Report writing general guidelines4
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Restate Relationships, Meanings Found in Data

  • Relate Findings to Original Research Question

  • Draw Conclusions: Specific, General (Restate Empirical Findings, General Issues, Broad Context)

  • Policy Implications, Future Research Areas

Report writing general guidelines5
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Clarity and New Ideas---Process of Writing

  • Limit Conclusions----Supported By Evidence

  • Writer’s Block---Mind Goes Blank (Solution: Break)

  • No Perfection

Report writing general guidelines6
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Clarity, Accuracy, Reflection of Logical Thinking, Step-By-Step Discussion, Coherence, Organization

  • Reflects Good Understanding of Substantive (theory and data) and Methodological Areas

  • Use of Technical Terms

Report writing general guidelines7
Report WritingGeneral Guidelines

  • Avoid Repetition

  • Avoid Wordiness, Flowery Language

  • Avoid Moralizing Style, Advocacy Research

  • Avoid Plagiarism—a Form of Cheating

  • Golden Principle: Apprenticeship---Role of Supervisor