Данный мини – гид по побережью Черного моря был создан членами Клуба международного сотрудничества МОУ гимназии №1.Данная разработка может быть полезна гидам – переводчикам при работе с иностранными группами, туристическим фирмам, рекламным агентствам при разработке и создании рекламных роликов и буклетов, презентаций для санаториев и учреждений отдыха города Сочи.
GENERAL INFORMATION The Black Sea is an inland sea bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and various straits. The Bosporus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects it to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate eastern Europe and western Asia. The Black Sea also connects to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2 (168,495.0 sq mi), a maximum depth of 2,206 m (7,238 ft), and a volume of 547,000 km³ (133,500 cu mi). The Black Sea forms in an east-west trending elliptical depression which lies between Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, the Caucasus Mountains to the east and features a wide shelf to the north-west. The longest east-west extent is about 1,175 km.
In the past, the water level has varied significantly. Depending on the water level in the basin, varying surrounding shelf and associated aprons are aerially exposed. At certain critical depths, it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. It is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the global ocean system. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is a lake, operating independently of the global ocean system. Currently the Black Sea water level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits connect the Black and Aegean Seas and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.
ECOLOGY The Black Sea supports a complex ecology in its upper waters, characterised by quasi-endemic species which thrive in the fresher surface waters, as well as cosmopolitan stenohaline and euryhaline species. The fluvial systems draining Eurasia and central Europe introduce large volumes of nutrients in the Black Sea, but distribution of these nutrients is controlled by the degree of physiochemical stratification, which is in turn dictated by seasonal physiographic development. Phytoplankton blooms occur in surface waters throughout the year, most reliably in the form of a Diatom bloom during March. However, subsurface productivity is limited by nutrient availability, as the anoxic bottom waters act as a sink for reduced nitrate, in the form of ammonia. Some chemosynthetic productivity occurs in the hypolimnion, estimated at ~10% of photosynthetic productivity.
HISTORY The Black Sea was a busy waterway on the crossroads of the ancient world: the Balkans to the West, the Eurasian steppes to the north, Caucasus and Central Asia to the East, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia to the south, and Greece to the south-west. The oldest processed gold in the world, arguably left by Old Europeans, was found in Varna, and the Black Sea was supposedly sailed by the Argonauts. The land at the eastern end of the Black Sea, Colchis, (now Georgia), marked for the Greeks an edge of the known world. The steppes to the north of the Black Sea have been suggested as the original homeland (Urheimat) of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language, (PIE) the progenitor of the Indo-European language family, by some scholars (see Kurgan; others move the heartland further east towards the Caspian Sea, yet others to Anatolia). Numerous ancient ports line Black Sea's coasts, some older than the pyramids. Ancient trade routes in the region are currently being extensively studied by American, Bulgarian, and other scientists. It is widely believed that the Black Sea is packed with archaeology to be found. Perhaps the most promising areas in deepwater archaeology are the quest for submerged prehistoric settlements in the continental shelf and for ancient shipwrecks in the anoxic zone, which are expected to be exceptionally well preserved due to the absence of oxygen. The Black Sea has witnessed the rivalries of Hittites, Carians, Thracians, Greeks, Persians, Cimmerians, Scythians, Romans, Byzantines, Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Slavs, Varangians, Crusaders, Venetians, Genovese, Tatars, Ottomans, and Russians. The Black Sea was a significant naval theatre of World War I and saw both naval and land battles during World War II.