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The road is straight. It’s the journey that’s twisted. Southeastern District Team. Lexington. Sanford. Knoxville. Franklin. Columbia. Birmingham. Macon. Bartow. San Juan. Health Issues. Southeastern District – MSHA - MNM Spring Thaw Meeting By Dave Rosenau.

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southeastern district team
Southeastern District Team









San Juan

health issues

Health Issues

Southeastern District – MSHA - MNM

Spring Thaw Meeting


Dave Rosenau

we d like to know
We’d Like to Know

Is your occupational safety and health

Program on FULL?


Is it heading towards empty ?

why do we sing the same song
Why do we sing the same song?

Dust and Noise exposures continue to exist…………

silicosis is

Silicosis is…

A disabling lung disease that is progressive



silicosis what is it
Silicosis - What is it ?

Medical Definition: A lung disease caused by the inhalation of respirable silica particles. The particles induce an immune response in the human lung causing scar tissue to form within the air exchange sacs of the lung.

Pneumoconiosis (dusty lung) pulmonary conditions related to dust inhalation.

silicosis chronic or acute
Silicosis, chronic or acute?
  • Most cases are found in older workers and retirees.
  • Silicosis related deaths have been documented in workers as young as age 30.

Exposure to Fine Dust

  • Respirable dust Particles with a diameter of less than 3-5 microns.
  • The diameter of human hair has a diameter of 50-80 microns.
  • How long does this dust stay in the air ?
  • Settling Rate for Dust in Still Air

Size in Microns Time to Fall 1 ft.

0.25 u 590 minutes

0.50 186

1.0 54

2.0 14.5

5.0 2.5

impact of silicosis
Impact of Silicosis
  • Silica particle migration in the lungs
  • Formation of a silicotic nodule,...the nodule reduces lung elasticity. Normal lung tissue area is reduced.
  • Reduced ability of the lung to exchange Carbon Dioxide for Oxygen with the blood.
  • To compensate for low Oxygen/CO2 exchange,....the heart enlarges to pump more blood through the lungs.
action of silica on the lungs
Action of Silica on the Lungs

There are still many theories on the physical impact of crystalline silica on lung


a) Material hardness

b) Sharp edges

c) Insolubility

d) Electrochemical properties

e) *Immunological response

(macrophage enzymes and free radicals)

impact of silicosis1
Impact of Silicosis

Ultimately,..... a person with chronic silicosis may expire from the cumulative cardiopulmonary effects of silicosis.


Air Testing



PEL = 10 mg / m


% Quartz + 2

engineering controls
Engineering Controls

Let’s assume we’ve discovered several areas of dust over-exposure .......

a. Engineering control options are to be evaluated first.

b. Look at isolating the employee from the process if possible.

c. Engineering controls can be more cost effective over time.

engineering controls1
Engineering Controls

1) Check ventilation system

2) All ductwork solid ?

3) Fan motor performance

4) Fan motor mounts

5) Belts tight

6) Fan blade wear

7) System balanced

8) System changes

9) Capture velocities

10) Duct transport velocity

11) How often is system


What’s the

cost vs. payback

preventive maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
  • Note the condition of your existing ventilation system. As illustrated, leaks in this flex duct allow room air to reduce transport velocity.
  • How much dust was in

the air, did it settle in

the duct ?

  • So,….is it dust with

Silica in it ?


When the dust contains respirable silica:

1) First priorityis to prevent dust release.

2) Educate employees on what equipment to use,... and how to most effectively do the job. (Document training sessions)

3) Consider HEPA vacuum methods

4) Consider wet collection methods where practical.

personal protective equipment
Personal Protective Equipment

Respiratory Protection:

  • Only permissible if engineering controls are not feasible, (and other special exceptions)
  • There must be a written respirator program that conforms to 30 CFR 56/57.5005(b)
  • Employees must be trained in the use, care, and limitations of respirators.
  • Do we document the educational program ?
  • Who oversees the program success ?
what type of respiratory protection do we need
What type of respiratory protection do we need ?
  • For respirable silica NIOSH recommends P100 filters (99.97% effective).
    • MSHA encourages you: Do not use the thin disposable respirators for respirable silica. These are preferred for nuisance dust and where non-oil aerosols are present. What else…? fit ?
    • In most mining environments oil aerosols could be present.
ansi z88 1969 respirator program
ANSI Z88.1969 Respirator Program

Required Elements of a Written Respirator Program

  • Written operating procedures
  • Medically qualified to wear respirator
  • Proper selection of respirator based on hazard
  • Trained in use and application limitations
  • Fit tested…… and trained in how to fit check
  • Trained in how to clean and inspect prior to use
  • Proper storage of any respirator
  • Surveillance of exposure conditions by supervisor
  • Regular Program review
silicosis reporting
Silicosis reporting
  • NIOSH oversees the “B” reader program for physicians who make the final determinations of silicosis. Refer to the website:
  • Many cases of silicosis are misdiagnosed because physicians are unaware of their patient’s work history / and or signs of silicosis.
act and communicate to eliminate silica exposures
Act and Communicate to Eliminate Silica Exposures
  • Considering the consequences of exposure to silica dust,...we must:

- Identify respirable silica exposures NOW,

- Retrofit with engineering controls,

- As a manager… it is your responsibility to adequately safeguard your employees.

- The cost to companies has been devastating over the years,...and

- The cost to human life ISterminal.


Are you a........

  • Supervisor,
  • Mid-level manager,
  • * “The Guy” who signs checks !
  • Are youan effective communicator ??
need some direction
Need Some Direction ?

Is your compass just a little off ?

hearing loss
Hearing Loss

“No one needs to lose his or her hearing in order to earn a living.”

2004 motto by the National Hearing Conservation Association

noise induced hearing loss is preventable
Noise induced hearing loss is preventable.
  • 30 million Americans are estimated to be exposed to noise levels in excess of 85 dBA.
  • One in every four workers will develop a permanent hearing loss as a result of trying to earn a living.
Five Elements for an AcceptableHearing Conservation Program

System of Monitoring...62.110

Hearing Protectors…......62.160

Audiometric Testing…....62.170 - 62.175

Training (education)…......62.180


what type of hearing protection do we need
What type of hearing protection do we need?
  • The key is to provide protectors that will fit the miners’ and be comfortable.
  • If the protection is not worn properly or worn at all the effective noise reduction rating will be low !
  • “The best hearing protector is the one that gets worn !”
hearing protection devices
Hearing Protection Devices

100 %

Percent of NRR actually

provided at the ear drum

  • Yellow Polyurethane Plugs
  • Green Foam Plugs
  • Poured (Cast) Foam Plugs
  • Hardhat Muffs
  • Over-the-Head Muffs








0 %


ask yourself the following
Ask yourself the following:
  • Have you conducted monitoring ….. or has a representative of your company been periodically testing for health hazards at your mine ?
  • 62.110(a) Occupational Noise Exposure


  • 56.5002 Exposure Monitoring
  • Or, do you rely solely on the MSHA inspector to test noise, dust, and other parameters at your mine ?
questions continued
Questions, continued…

Have you developed a policy for the type of personal protective to be used at your mine…..and for special tasks ?

questions continued1
Questions, continued…
  • Have you developed a respiratory protection program or……………
  • A hearing conservation program (HCP) ?
question of the day
Question of the Day
  • Part 46 and 48 require training in the health and safety aspects of the job,…
  • How can serious health issues be taught….. and discussed with employees if the % silica in bulk rock and respirable fraction is NOT KNOWN !!


  • Never having done noise dosimetry ?
no man is an island
No man is an island.
  • MSHA has a goal of reducing the number of elevated exposures to respirable crystalline

silica and noise.

We need your help !

So we ALL benefit.

regulations to ponder
Regulations to Ponder
  • 56.5001 Air Quality Exposure Limits
  • 56.5005 Control of Exposure Eng + Resp
  • 56.15006 PPE for the Hazard
  • 56.18002 Workplace Exam - Comp. Person
  • 56.18006 New Employee - Safe Work Practices
  • 56.20003 Housekeeping
questions continued2
Questions, continued…
  • What about your supervision?
    • MSHA has train-the-trainer courses available.
    • EFS and State Grants are able to assist with management training and education.

They’re a phone call away.

    • Compliance assistance visits are an option for new mines and new processes.
Here’s the Message:

1) Effective safety programs have test data on-hand to communicate.

2) Good occupational health data assists educators.

3) Educators freely share knowledge,

Today,..knowledge is the ONLY remaining competitive edge.

top 10 items to have on hand for an inspection
Top 10 Items to have on-hand for an Inspection
  • Mine Legal Identity form..……………....Part 41
  • Quarterly Employment form 7000-2….…Part 50
  • Bulletin Board ………....Sec 109 of Act, Public Law 91-173
  • Electrical Continuity and Resistance……. 56.12028
  • Workplace exam…………………………56.18002
  • Independent Contractor List……………..Part 45
  • Emergency Call List……………………...56.18012
  • First Aid Training record.………………..56.18010
  • Part 46/48 Training Plan and documents, (46.3, 46.8, 46.11)
  • Part 47 HazCom program - 5 parts complete
  • Part 62 Hearing Conservation Program (if applicable)
thank you for participating
Thank you for participating!

Feel free to contact the Macon Field Office


Birmingham District Office:

Office: 205/290-7294

how does this affect my mine
How does this affect my mine?
  • Almost every mine in the Southeast is a GPRA mine. These include:

Crushed Stone, Sandstone, Limestone, Sand & Gravel, Dimensional stone, Dimensional Granite

gpra mines will be sampled frequently by msha
GPRA mines will be sampled frequently by MSHA.
  • Jobs believed to be at risk include:
    • Crushers
    • Baggers
    • Cleanup man
    • Laborers
    • Drill operators
    • Stone polishers/cutters
bartow field office
Bartow Field Office
  • 193 mines of the 1601 for the

Southeastern District

occupations with health citations in bartow in 2003
Occupations With Health Citations in Bartow in 2003:
  • Dust
    • Bagging
  • Hearing Conservation
    • Drillers
    • Truck drivers
    • Cleanup personnel
    • operators
don t wait for msha to tell you
Don’t wait for MSHA to tell you!
  • Set a goal.
  • Put your goals in a written plan and tell everyone at the mine. Post a copy.
  • Set implementation dates. Assign responsible parties.
  • Meet as often as necessary to assure the plan is working.
try this
Try this:
  • Install sound absorbing batting.
  • Close up all openings.
  • Provide tight seals at doors and windows.
  • Insulate the flooring.
potential airborne contaminants as dust
Potential Airborne Contaminants, as Dust
  • Asbestos – According to the EPA contour maps asbestos minerals follow the Appalachian chain across NC, SC, KY, TN, AL and Georgia.
  • Crystalline Silica
  • Trace metals, such as arsenic (ubiquitous)
  • And other stuff….cement board building materials include silica, chrome….
what are the control methods at a mine such as the previous one
What are the control methods at a mine such as the previous one?
  • Wet methods. Use water trucks.
  • Cab enclosures with filtered air.
  • Vacuum systems for drills.
  • Compressed air for cleaning should be prohibited.
drilling dust
Drilling Dust
  • Drilling dust must be controlled by either vacuuming or wet methods.
  • However, despite best efforts, uneven bench conditions exist, making it more difficult to control the dust.
vacuum system
Vacuum system
  • Check the vacuum unit. It may be defective or the air pressure may be too low.
  • A wet medium around the base of the drill will further control the dust.
refer to the msha website for other controls
Refer to the MSHA website for other controls:
  • MSHA has recently published a new Program Information Bulletin regarding feasible engineering and administrative controls for noise.

other health issues
Other health issues:
  • Asbestos – proposed rulemaking is in progress – no new requirements, but recommendations are provided. Refer to the MSHA website.
  • DPM – MSHA has devoted many compliance efforts to this subject – refer to the website or call your local field office or District office.
  • Safety and health efforts are sometimes difficult to measure, but if you have saved the life of only one person you have succeeded!
  • Submit your safety and health ideas to MSHA so that others can gain from your experience.
  • Join safety & health organizations.
  • Speak up!
generation of rock dust
Generation of Rock Dust

Sources of Respirable Dust:

  • Drilling,
  • Crushing,
  • Bagging of a finished product,....and any other
  • Abrasive operations
an important condition
An Important Condition !

Silica may be present in the rock ........

  • Know the percent silica in the rock !
  • Does the silica content change ?
  • Does your company maintain ongoing analytical records of the percent silica content ?
silicosis a closer look
Silicosis - A Closer Look


Frequency Percent

Coal & Metal Mining & Quarrying 18520

Construction 97 10.5

Steelworks and metal finishing 67 7.2

Misc.nonmetallic mineral products 54 5.8

Iron & Steel foundries 46 5.0

All other industries 477 51.0

926 100%


when it comes to a health hazard like silica dust
When it Comes to a Health Hazard Like Silica Dust........
  • Test the work environment
  • Document exposure levels
  • Schedule regular medical exams for employees
  • Implement engineering controls first
  • Specify methods for effective housekeeping
  • PPE is a last measure,....NOT a 1st choice.
  • Hold regular educational meetings to keep all staff informed, share information to maintain an elevated awareness for personal safety.