Meaning of Electronics • The word Electronics has been derived from the Greek Word ‘Electron’ plus ‘mechanism’ • The meaning of the term signifies the study of electron behavior under different field conditions. • Thus electronics can be treated as that branch of science and technology that deals with the study of electron motions in various vacuum tubes, glass tubes and semi conductor devices. • Generally whole electronics deals with: Physical Electronics and Electronics Engineering
Meaning of Electronics (Continued) • Physical Electronics deals with the actual phenomenon occurring within the devices during its operation • However in the other part of electronics we study how an electronic device actually works. • On the other hand electronics engineering is the application part of core electronics and under this section we deal with the successive development. • Just think about the world full of technological advancement, what is behind that “definitely Electronics”
Brief History of Historical Significance and Development of Electronics • Probably, the era of electronics started when a British Physicist ‘Thomson’ invented the fundamental particle of all the atoms that is Electrons (1980) • By the very advent of this particle many electron devices like vacuum tubes-diode, triode etc came into existence. • Their operating principle was solely based upon the controlled movement of these electrons. • Inventions of ‘Fleming’ (invented a diode valve in 1904), having capability of unidirectional current flow.
Brief History of Historical Significance and Development of Electronics • During the 2nd world war there was a need to establish long distance communication link. • For the purpose microwave devices came into existence as such they facilitated the researchers to invent Radar and other communication systems. • In 1951 the Bell Labs produced the 1st commercial transistor and treated as the basic block of all electronic circuits.
Brief History of Historical Significance and Development of Electronics • This invention of Transistor was like a miracle for the researchers as it solved so many problems. • In case of analog electronics, it was used as an Amplifier. • In case of discrete or digital circuits it was used as an electronic switch. • Remember last lecture when we discussed that Processor used Transistors before? • Than in 1960’s components like IC’s came into the industry and now in this era we do discuss system on Chip.
The Advent of Transistors as basic building blocks of SSD and Circuits • In 1947 the First Transistor was introduced. • It employs the transfer of resistance. • It means that whatever the signal to be at the input terminal the signal will travel from low resistance side towards the high resistance side. • And all of this phenomenon depends on the concentration profile of this three terminal device (Emitter, Base and Collector) • The device can be configured in many ways and we will discuss that later.
The Advent of Transistors as basic building blocks of SSD and Circuits • At some instance it work as an Amplifier and at some instance it works as a switch. • Do you remember when it will work as an Amplifier and when as a switch? • The invention of Transistor as a discrete component reduced size, cost and circuit complexity. • At the same time it increased the reliability, portability and accuracy of the electronic circuits.
Comparison between the Electron Tubes and Solid State Devices • The major differences were; • Operating principle • Size • Portability • Temperature dependency • Power consumption • Speed • Reliability • Durability • Cost
Various Solid State Devices and Applications • No single corner where electronic devices are absent. • Electronics do have two commercial sides, power and communication electronics. • One can see many devices like diodes, transistors, oscillators, field effect transistors, operational amplifiers, etc in modern industry, communication engineering in particular.
Electronic Components • Broadly categorized as active and passive components. • Passive components are those which are to be connected with devices to perform mathematical and logic functions. • They can’t generate their own power and they require external power to get energized. • On the other hand active components are discrete electronics. • They can generate internal signal for circuit operations. • Passive components have linear relationship between input and output but the graph of active component is not linear.