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Supporting the Review of the Thematic Strategy on Waste Prevention and RecyclingPresentation by Catherine Bowyer andEmma Watkins IEEP working with BIO Intelligence Service, Ecologic, Unweltbundesamt, Arcadis and Vito
1 - Introduction to the work • Project Aim • To assist the Commission in the review of the Waste Thematic Strategy • Primarily a meta study, bringing together information and understanding • Approach • Literature review, expert questionnaires, consultation with stakeholder, modelling, desk based research and analysis • 6 key tasks • Trends and developments relevant to waste management • Current state of play - 12 factsheets on different aspects of waste management • Anticipated future trends up to 2030 • Diffusion and integration of key concepts • considering how key concepts specified in the TS are used at MS and EU level • Implementation and impacts of the waste TS • envisaged as the focus of conclusions from the work • Delivering a recycling society and markets • Considering how MS performance compares to concepts of a recycling society • Looking at barriers and factors to facilitate improved waste management, including recycling, in Europe • The EU’s impact internationally in terms of waste management • Considering Europe’s influence internationally • Stakeholder consultation • Expert group and wider stakeholder consultation
2 - Purpose This presentation • Introduction to the wider work supporting the Thematic Strategy review • Support discussions later on today • Set the scene in terms of waste management performance in Europe and future anticipated trends • Focus on task 1 results • Complemented by chair presentations on each of the 4 topics – breakout groups Today - Communicate and listen • Introduce themes • Understand perceptions of the issues from experts • Open and strategic discussions • Feed into conclusions Critical upcoming deadlines • 1 July – Deadline for further comments following this meeting • 19 July – Submission of draft final report to the Commission • 23 August – Submission of the final report to the Commission
3 - State of Waste Management - generation Waste generation is increasing Overallgeneration EEA/Eurostat • Across different waste streams: • municipal solid waste; • packaging waste; • hazardous waste; • construction and demolition waste • industrial waste
Trends in municipal waste generation DRAFT FIGURE - EEA - upcoming SOER, draft version June 2010
4 - State of Waste Management - recycling • Proportion of recycling is increasing • Recycling and composting of MSW in EU-27: 1998 - 19%; 2007 - 38% (Source: EEA SOER report 2010) • In 2006 the EU 27 recycled approximately 55% of waste targeted by EU Directives • 70% of ELVs, • 57% of packaging, • 65% of construction and demolition waste, • 34% of municipal solid waste • 19% of WEEE. - Rate of recycling and improvement varies significantly by Member State and waste stream
Recycling rates for municipal waste in the EU 27 DRAFT FIGURE - EEA - upcoming SOER, draft version June 2010
5 - State of Waste Management - disposal • Landfill of MSW decreasing: • 1997 – 293 kg per capita • 2008 – 207 kg per capita • Range in 2008 from 672 kg/capita in Cyprus to 3kg/capita in Germany (EU-27) (Source: EEA) • Incineration of MSW increasing: • 1997 - 70kg per capita • 2008 - 102kg per capita • Ranges from 0 kg/capita in a variety of MS to 433 kg/capita in Denmark (EU-27) (Source: Eurostat) • Preferred disposal route highly varied dependent on the Member State and national circumstance • A consequence of public awareness/perceptions, infrastructure, choice of legal instruments
Treatment of waste - 2006 High levels of recovery Incineration as the primary disposal route Significant levels of energy recovery Primary reliance on landfilling Eurostat, Energy Transport and Environment Indicators 2008
6 - State of Waste Management - trade Trade in EU waste with third countries and across the Member States is increasing • Significant growth in volume of non-hazardous waste shipped from the EU to third countries ie paper, plastics and metals • Extra EU15 trade in paper rose from 1.2-7.8 million tonnes (1994 – 2007) • Key area of export – Asia • accounts for majority of non-EU trade in waste paper and plastics • trade in paper x10, plastics x11 and metal x5 • Extra EU15 trade in plastics rose from 0.2-1.6 million tonnes (1995-2005) • In 2007 more plastics waste was shipped to the Asian market by the EU, than within the EU • In 2007 half of all waste plastics were exported to China and Hong Kong • EEA data from 1997-2004 shows a year on year increase in notified waste exported • Trade in the quantity of notified waste exported from EU Member States increased x 4 (including trade to other EU MS and 3rd Countries) • Most significant exporters of waste in 2005 • Netherlands, • Ireland, • Luxembourg, • Belgium
7 – Expert Thoughts – EU waste management Please feel free to add your thoughts • Waste production is still likely to increase • Unsustainable production & consumption patterns in Europe persist • Waste management has improved since Waste TS (e.g. waste streams, landfill diversion) • Trends difficult to assess due to limited time series data for waste streams • Low quality recycling and incineration with energy recovery have been encouraged in many MS • Difficulties with data collection for prevention and reuse hamper the provision of a full picture of the EU’s management approaches • High variability in performance across MS and waste streams due to different regulatory regimes, support structures and public perceptions
8 - Future Waste Trends Modelling work • Aim • To provide quantitative assessments of anticipated trends in waste management up to 2030 • To allow comparison with stakeholder expectations • Approach and Assumptions • Based on the modelling of three MS groupings based on waste management, economic and social characteristics • Based on best available data regarding waste generation and managament, primarily EEA and Eurostat sources, to be supplemented by additional information from EEA from MS consultation • Assumes existing EU targets will be met • Next steps • Approach being checked against those adopted by the EEA for the SOER report • Further allowance to be taken for the financial crisis • Wider review process ongoing - Questionnaires and further info available if you wish to engage in this process • Please make Mike Van Acoleyen aware if you are interested in participating - M.VanAcoleyen@arcadisbelgium.be
Modelling outcomes – initial run • MSW (EU-27) • Generation to increase until c. 2016; then dependent on demographic change: • Landfill to drop; incineration to stabilise from 2018 • Recycling to increase, then stabilise, driven by targets • Composting likely to increase considerably; • anaerobic digestion to become more important • Industrial and other non-household waste (EU-27) • Generation to increase at a fairly stable rate • Recycling of inert waste and C&D waste to increase steadily but landfill to remain important. • Landfill of other industrial waste to decrease • Incineration of industrial waste to increase until c. 2016 then stabilise • Total waste generation continues to increase • Export of waste to non-EU-27 countries • To increase in line with currently observed trends
Expert Perceptions - future challenges Please feel free to add your thoughts • Ensuring implementation of waste legislation in MS • Shift policies from end-of-pipe to waste prevention, factoring in LCA and end-of-life design criteria during development • Mandatory measures and targets for waste prevention? • Greater focus on industrial sector • Incentivise high-quality and environmentally sound recycling • Better selective collection and waste quality management (esp. for bio-waste) • Full incorporation of SCP practices; addressing loss of resources (e.g. inefficient recycling, illegal waste shipments) • Take into account waste generated outside the EU during production of imported goods/materials • Impact of the economic crisis on waste management
Please supply any detailed comments our thoughts to contacts below by 1 July firstname.lastname@example.org@ieep.eu IEEP is an independent not-for-profit institute dedicated to advancing an environmentally sustainable Europe through policy analysis, development and dissemination.